The appearance of the baby into the world is one of the most memorable, most exciting, most reverent memories of parents. And especially for mom, because she was finally able to see the one who for 9 months accompanied her everywhere. It would seem that nothing else can darken parental happiness ... except for the sudden death of the baby.
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is a phenomenon not yet fully understood. Experts still can not with absolute probability to give the reasons that lead to the tragedy. However, during the study of the issue some parallels were made, and a list of recommendations for the safety of the baby was made.
What does SVSM mean?
CBC or Infant Death Syndrome first appeared in medical terminology in 1969. However, the phenomenon itself has been studied for almost 20 years. In quite healthy newborns up to the year, breathing suddenly ceased. Even an autopsy could not show the exact cause of death. Most often, the kids died at night in a dream, so sometimes this syndrome is called "death in the cradle."
What is most strange, parents usually did not notice any previous signs, such as, for example, anxiety, difficulty breathing, cyanosis. The child is completely healthy, but one day he simply did not wake up!
Globally, this question is investigated by American experts, since the statistics there are about 4 thousand cases of infant deaths per year. Moreover, more than 80% of them were diagnosed as SBSM. We have the same number of such cases is 11 out of every thousand newborns. The process of diagnosis is quite complicated, since the doctor will need to study in detail the medical history of such a short life almost from the moment of conception. A diagnosis of CBC is made when no congenital abnormalities, no infections, nothing that could cause respiratory failure are detected. That is, inexplicable etiology.
So why do babies die?
As mentioned, to establish the causes of sudden infant death syndrome before the tragedy is almost impossible. Nevertheless, factors that could affect or provoke SBSM were identified.
- How a baby sleeps. Most deaths occur precisely in a dream. Therefore, the position in which the child is at this time matters. So it is not recommended to put newborns to sleep on the tummy. This is especially important to remember, if the child is quite small, he cannot turn back himself yet. According to statistics, about 70% of cases of respiratory arrest occurred precisely in the position lying on the tummy, with their faces in the mattress.
- A place to sleep may also be dangerous. Baby bed should not consist of soft objects - pillows, mattresses, blankets. The surface for sleeping should be flat and firm. And from the pillow at such an early age in general it is worth while to refuse. Water mattresses, too warm blankets are also prohibited. The very same cradle should not consist of materials and elements that prevent the normal circulation of air flow. From the cradle and around it is better to remove all the "dust collectors" - soft toys, bedspreads, curtains, clothes.
- Excessive heat can cause asphyxiation. This applies to both the child’s wrapping and the too-warm, warm indoor air.
- The likelihood of HFM is increased if the baby is premature, born with low birth weight, or there has been a multiple pregnancy.
- The small gaps between the pregnancies of the mother weaken the condition of the last babies. Here it is also worth mentioning the previous cases of CAM, stillbirth and miscarriages of previous children from the same parents.
- Late medical monitoring of the gestation period.
- There are also a number of unfavorable social factors, such as low-income families, single mothers, inadequate housing conditions, socially decaying personalities (drug addicts, alcoholics), too early a mother’s age.
- Anemia or hypoxia of the fetus, as well as the disease recently transferred to a newborn, can cause SBSM.
- Being a child in a room where they smoke, because it is known that passive smokers suffer from tobacco smoke much more than the smokers themselves. As well as smoking the mother before or during the gestation period. Studies have shown that in the latter case, the risk increases by 40%.
- Postpartum maternal depression.
Analyzing the factors of negative impact, the most probable causes of sudden infant death syndrome were identified:
- Impaired respiratory function is dangerous especially during sleep, since at this time the child is less under observation. Termination of respiration, even for a short period, can lead to oxygen starvation, which is usually restored during the period of awakening. At first, parents should listen and look to the sleeping baby. If breath holding occurs regularly and lasts more than 10-15 seconds, you should immediately show the baby to a specialist.
- Cardiac abnormalities, in particular, arrhythmia and short-term asystole. In the course of research, scientists have found that this phenomenon can be observed even in completely healthy babies. It is also important timeliness of response to the state, including professional assistance.
- Changes in the brain stem are a very dangerous reason, since the centers of respiration and cardiovascular movement are located in the medulla oblongata. The synthesis of enzymes can be disrupted or structural damage and changes in stem cells can be detected.
- Pathology of blood vessels that provide blood supply to the stem section. Constriction of the artery during sleep. Up to 4 months, until the child can turn the head on its side, this risk is always present. As mentioned, the position of the body of a sleeping baby is very important. Worsening of the blood supply can be observed in the position on the side and on the tummy.
- Nonspecific stress syndrome is a phenomenon accompanied by characteristic external signs, such as a runny nose, discharge from the eye, dermatitis, weight loss, an increase in some internal organs. Such manifestations usually precede CASM within 2–3 weeks. Absolutely stressful for the body can be absolutely any factors. Many researchers believe that the stress itself acts only in conjunction with the existing developmental disorder of the baby.
- Infections and weakened immunity. This cause of SBSM was singled out, since during the history of medical history, the fact of an infectious lesion occurred in most of the dead kids. Microorganisms can leave toxins in the child’s body that are detrimental to such an immature immune system.
- More recently, another reason has been added to this list. Scientists have identified a defective gene of the immune system, ostensibly responsible for the possibility of SES. However, this does not become the main cause of sudden death, but acts in conjunction with other factors of influence.
Up to what age should you fear sudden infant death syndrome?
To answer the question, until what age can the syndrome of sudden death of babies occur, we turn to the definition of the concept. The word "baby" directly indicates the age limit of children. So baby is considered the first 12 months of life of the baby.
However, the greatest number of cases of sudden death is recorded in the period from 2 to 4 months of life. Such a conclusion was made after such observations: the baby can already turn the head, but its self-preservation mechanisms are not yet developed. Inadvertently turning in his sleep, the child may face his face into the surface of the mattress, which will cause a lack of oxygen.
The risk group includes infants with weakened immune systems, including premature, weak births (for example, one of the twins).
The sex of the child is not so significant, but it is noted that the sudden mortality of boys is more common than of girls. As the scientists explain, in view of the "sexual" features of the immune system.
Calculate the probability of sudden death of the baby is almost impossible. But if you ensure proper care for your child in the first months of his life, as well as minimize the influence of negative factors, then the tragedy will be avoided.
Young parents should understand that SESM is not a pattern, but only separately taken cases. The development of each child is a unique, individual process. And in some moments, to prevent a tragedy, it is better to overdo it with attention.