Everyone has heard about such terrible diseases as a heart attack and stroke. Some faced these pathological conditions personally, or such a misfortune happened to relatives. Modern medicine, with timely assistance, can put a person on his feet, and reduce all risks to a minimum. But it is much better and more effective to engage in prevention, to prevent the development of a stroke.
Stroke: a description of the disease and risk factors
A stroke is a pathological condition of the brain that develops in connection with a sudden disturbance of the blood circulation of the nervous tissue and its subsequent death. As a result, cerebral or focal neurological symptoms occur, which can persist for a day or cause death in a shorter period.
A stroke can cause such disorders as paresis (restriction in movement), paralysis (complete immobilization), various speech disorders, vestibular disorders, etc. These complications can cause disability and social adaptation of the patient after a stroke. Sometimes the recovery process lasts for years and even decades.
Today, much work is being done to prevent the development of strokes - primary and secondary prevention. All preventive work is aimed at controlling risk factors for the development of the pathological process and, if they are identified, prevention will be directed at correcting them. All predisposing factors can be conditionally classified into 2 groups:
Behavioral - contributing to the development of stroke. This group includes smoking, which increases the risk of stroke formation almost 2 times. Various psychological factors - stress, overwork, depression, etc. Bad habits, such as alcohol abuse, taking drugs, certain medications, etc. Such factors as a sedentary lifestyle, being overweight and obesity increase the risk of ischemic stroke.
Metabolic - risk factors that are associated with health problems. First of all, it is arterial hypertension, metabolic syndrome, diseases of the endocrine system - diabetes mellitus, coagulopathy.
The elimination of precisely these causes lies at the root of preventive measures of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes.
Prevention of stroke: the main directions in the warning.
In medicine, there are 2 types of stroke - hemorrhagic and ischemic. Hemorrhagic stroke occurs when blood for some reason leaves the closed circulatory system and enters the gray matter of the brain, which is why cell death occurs. The causes of this type of stroke is aneurysm, arteriovenous malformations, diabetic angiopathy, etc.
An ischemic stroke, which is similar in mechanism of action to a myocardial infarction, when blood and nutrients cease to flow through certain vessels and brain tissue die, has several other causes. Namely, atherosclerosis, hypertension, etc.
It turns out that the basis of primary and secondary prevention will be the active identification of patients with arterial hypertension, aneurysms, their placement in the dispensary register. Prevention of recurrent acute cerebrovascular accidents (secondary prophylaxis) will include surgical interventions, drug therapy, the appointment and adherence to a particular diet, etc.
Prevention of ischemic stroke: the rules
- Primary prevention of ischemic stroke, or cerebral infarction, will be aimed at preventing the development of acute cerebral circulatory disorders, namely maintaining a healthy lifestyle and giving up bad habits, playing sports, maintaining optimal body weight, timely and adequate therapy and prevention of associated diseases. Of particular importance in the measures of prevention is given to the observance of a certain diet, and proper nutrition.
- The first step is to reduce harmful cholesterol in the blood, reduce its amount in the diet. Simply put, a diet should consist of foods that will help lower cholesterol. Particular attention should be paid to oatmeal, soy products and almonds. Frequent use of such products can reduce the concentration of harmful cholesterol in the blood of almost 40%, the same results can boast of drugs. Reducing bad cholesterol reduces the risk of stroke by 25%.
- In addition, foods that are enriched with potassium, magnesium, etc. must necessarily be present in the diet. Vegetables and fruits can be included in this group. All of them are enriched with antioxidants that help reduce inflammation and destroy plaques on the walls of blood vessels. Antioxidants are able to dilate blood vessels, therefore, improve blood flow.
- One of the most valuable foods are bananas, which are rich in potassium. A couple of bananas in the den, or a handful of prunes, will not leave a stroke any chance. Among the vegetables the most useful will be beans, spinach. For the prevention of stroke and such a trace element as magnesium, especially in combination with calcium. This symbiosis of trace elements significantly reduces the risk of developing the disease.
- The third important point in the preventive diet of strokes is the stabilization of salt levels in the body and restriction in use. Patients should drastically and significantly reduce their sodium intake. Some products, it would seem, not salty, contain it in large quantities. This group includes ketchups, sauces of industrial production, etc.
- Stroke prevention using folk remedies includes keeping to a diet, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, having a good rest and protecting yourself from stress.
How to avoid a stroke: drugs and medications
Ischemic stroke, according to statistics, is much more common than hemorrhagic. The onset of the disease is usually associated with atherosclerotic changes in the walls of the cerebral vessels, in combination with hypertension. In line with this, preventive measures will include timely therapy using certain groups of drugs.
First of all, it is lipid-lowering therapy using statins. Atherosclerosis is the result of a violation of lipid metabolism and the development of hypercholesterinemia. Cholesterol is deposited on the inner surface of blood vessels, it is in this way that atherosclerotic plaques form that can significantly impede the flow of blood to vital organs - the heart, brain, etc. groups of statins.
This group of drugs is able to reduce plasma lipids and control their increased formation. In addition, drugs can control the deposition of cholesterol in the form of plaques, therefore, significantly reduce the risk of stroke.
In addition to statins, antihypertensive drugs can be used in prophylactic treatment to control blood pressure. Particular attention is paid to the medical treatment of concomitant diseases of the patient, which in one way or another can be a predisposing factor for the development of strokes.
The prevention of such terrible, serious, and in some cases fatal diseases requires special attention. It is worth remembering that strokes are “younger”, and if before the illness was met very rarely in people younger than 45 to 50 years old, today strokes are far from uncommon among young people between 25 and 35 years old! This is due to many factors and life circumstances. This is another reason to think about health in advance, to conduct mandatory prevention of disease.