Streptoderma refers to skin diseases of an infectious nature. The causative agent is a streptococcus microorganism. Most often, the pathology occurs in young children aged from 2 to 7 years. Cuts, abrasions and scratches on the skin, bites of various insects and others can provoke the occurrence of the disease. Damage to the skin through which the infection penetrates. Streptoderma is transmitted by everyday means, for example, through dishes and clothing, toys and other objects that were affected by the sick child.
Types of streptoderma and causes of its development
There are 5 main types of development of the disease in children:
Impetigo streptococcal occurs as a result of maceration and microtraumas of the skin. It can also be a complication of diseases such as scabies, eczema, lice or various dermatoses.
- Streptoderma with the formation of erosions and papules - bubbles filled with fluid. This form is manifested by the appearance of red papules with a bluish tinge on the skin of the buttocks and the back of the child’s thighs. The size of the formations varies from 1 to 3 mm. Papules are prone to rapid transition to erosion, which become covered over time by crusts. In newborns, as well as infants, this form of streptoderma is called diaper.
- Streptococcal buns, called in medicine slit-like impetigo, are manifested in children who have the habit of constantly licking their lips. In this form, swelling appears in the corners of the mouth, the skin may turn red. Then there is the appearance of cracks, which after a certain time become covered with dense crusts.
- A simple pediatric lichen is a disease caused by streptococcus, in which pinkish or white spots appear on the face. The skin in places of these oval or round spots will peel off, slight itching may occur. The contours of the spots are clear and even, such formations immediately draw attention to themselves. The number of elements of the rash decreases when exposed to sunlight. The parts of the skin affected by simple deprive are not amenable to tanning in the future.
- Streptoderma, with a predominant lesion of the nail rollers occurs in children prone to biting their nails. In this form, papules appear around the nail plates, which can be multiple and large. Over time, they break open and form erosion in the form of a horseshoe.
- Streptococcal diaper rash occurs in the folds of the skin most often in children under 1 year of age. Small papules appear on the skin, which can merge with each other, and upon opening, form wet surfaces of bright pink color.
The causes of streptoderma may be the following:
- Reduced immunity, in which even a small number of microbes can cause disease.
- Violation of microflora in the intestines as a result of improper administration of antibacterial agents or poor nutrition.
- Long-term antibiotic treatment.
- Neglect of sanitary and hygienic norms leads to the emergence of favorable conditions for the reproduction of pathogens.
- Combing skin with dermatosis leads to streptococcal infection and the development of streptoderma.
Signs of streptoderma in children:
- On the skin appear small bubbles filled with liquid. They can merge and turn after a while into pustules. Mostly papules are located in the skin folds, on the face, back and legs. Sometimes they burst and leave moist, hot pink spots that are covered with crusts.
- The child becomes inactive and apathetic.
- General malaise, weakness.
- Loss of appetite.
- Irritability and capriciousness.
- Itching on the skin and a burning sensation due to which the child combs the spots with rashes, which causes the spread of infection.
- Increased body temperature with streptoderma is extremely rare. Usually this symptom appears in newborn babies and children up to a year. Also, fever occurs if a large part of the skin is affected.
- The clinical signs of the disease resemble those of chickenpox. That is why early diagnosis is very important, it will immediately cure streptoderma. In case of late or incorrect therapy, the pathology can become chronic, which is dangerous for such complications as kidney and heart diseases.
How to treat streptoderma in children?
With this disease is not required to stay in the hospital. A child is placed in the hospital only in the case of a very severe streptoderma with high temperature and a large area of affected skin. The disease is treated on an outpatient basis at home.
If streptoderma takes place in a mild form, it is enough treatment with means of local action. Doctors recommend 2-3 times a day to lubricate the papules with an alcoholic solution of greens or 2% solution of methylene blue. Crusts, located on the scalp can be removed by pre-lubricating them with petroleum jelly. They will soften and can be easily removed from the skin. The remaining areas can be treated with 2% yellow or white ointment with mercury in combination with boric acid, the concentration of which does not exceed 3%. instead of boric acid, 1% resortium or 5-10% naphthalene ointment can be used.
Antibacterial ointment for the treatment of streptoderma in children is not recommended because they can lead to allergic reactions. Treatment of dry streptoderma is reduced to treating the affected skin with 2% silver nitrite 2 or 3 times a day. Be sure to lubricate the skin before bedtime.
If a child has a very high body temperature on the background of the disease and the symptoms are very pronounced, which is reflected in blood tests in the form of elevated ESR, the number of leukocytes, antibacterial agents are prescribed for oral administration. On the severe course of the disease also says joined lymphadenitis. If a state of extreme severity may require plasma transfusions, ultraviolet irradiation and albumin therapy.
Antibacterial drugs are prescribed for severe disease, when most of the skin is affected and the rash does not stop. In this case, there is a risk of spreading the infection and the appearance of complications. Most often prescribed to undergo a course of erythromycin, flucloxacilin or clarithromycin. These drugs belong to broad-spectrum antibiotics, which effectively cope not only with staphylococcus, but also with other pathogenic microorganisms.
They help very well in situations where streptoderma is combined with other skin infectious diseases. Children need to take antibiotics only under the supervision of a specialist, do not prescribe medications themselves, because they can cause dangerous side effects. Most often there is vomiting, pain in the abdomen, nausea, disorders of the digestive system and diarrhea. There may also be an allergic reaction, and even such a dangerous condition as anaphylactic shock.
Home treatment with traditional methods
Folk remedies should be used only with a mild form of the disease. The most effective recipes:
- Camel thistle tincture is prepared for bathing. It is diluted with water in a 1: 1 ratio and the baby is bathed for 20 minutes. Then you need to anoint the affected areas with ointments.
- Mix garlic juice with ground black pepper at a ratio of 1: 1 and apply lotions on streptococcal-damaged skin. This remedy is especially effective in case of pustules and weeping erosion. It dries well.
- Broths based on chamomile flowers and oak bark also have a drying effect and are widely used in streptoderma and other skin diseases. Make lotions with broth or wipe the affected areas with it.
See also:Psoriasis: symptoms, treatment
During treatment, it is necessary to normalize the nutrition of the child and to exclude from the diet pastries, confectionery products and sweets, which contribute to the active reproduction of the pathogen. To prevent disease, observe all standards of hygiene and teach your baby to clean and tidy. Make sure that he often washed his hands, did not touch his face and did not comb his skin.