Gallstone disease is very common. Such a pathology may be due to heredity and a wrong lifestyle. The symptoms of this disease are very specific and are accompanied by bouts of pain. Do not despair if you have revealed a stone in the gallbladder. What to do in this situation, we will discuss in our article.
Gallstone: what to do?
In order for a person to properly navigate and perform all the necessary actions aimed at treating gallstone pathology, it is necessary to first identify the causes of its occurrence. The following causes may precede the formation of gallstones:
- the development of inflammatory processes in the ducts that remove bile;
- excessive consumption of foods with a high concentration of cholesterol;
- taking oral contraceptives;
- excessive body weight;
- taking a number of hormone replacement drugs;
- Crohn's disease;
- a sharp decrease in weight category;
- increased flatulence;
- cholecystitis of any type;
- biliary dyskinesia.
Treatment specialists classify stones that form in the gallbladder into several groups, in particular:
Gallstone disease has four stages of development. Depending on the cause of the appearance of stones, their type, the severity of the disease, and the physiological characteristics of the patient, the attending specialist prescribes either conservative or surgical treatment.
How to relieve the symptoms of an attack?
Gallstone disease is considered very insidious and latent. For a long time, a person may not feel any symptoms and lead a normal life. After accumulation of stones in the bile ducts or bladder, their movement occurs, which, as a rule, is accompanied by painful attacks of varying intensity. What to do if suddenly caught a seizure due to gallstones?
If you are faced with an attack of gallstone disease, then you should definitely know how to alleviate the pain syndrome. During an attack it is allowed to perform the following actions:
- take a warm bath or attach a heating pad to the peritoneal wall (in the gallbladder area);
- pharmacological preparations with antispasmodic effects are allowed;
- plentiful warm drink (it is not recommended to drink carbonated drinks);
- apply a warming compress to the sore spot, which will increase blood flow to the bile ducts;
- When a chill appears, you need to cover yourself with a warm blanket, and wear wool socks on your feet.
As practice shows, with the onset of an attack of gallstones, nausea is observed, and often there is a desire to gag reflex. To avoid this, the patient should drink at least 0.5 liters of warm purified water. During the period of exacerbation of the disease, the amount of drinking should be increased to 1.5 liters per day. It should be remembered that with cholelithiasis it is best to drink warm water, heated to approximately the temperature mark of 38-40 °.
Methods of treatment depending on the size of the stones
What to do if the stone in the gallbladder reaches sizes up to 1-2 cm? Patients who have an initial stage of gallstone pathology, as well as those who have stones with a diameter of up to 15 mm, are treated with conservative treatment or so-called pharmacotherapy. Treatment in this case is carried out with the help of pharmacological preparations containing bile acids, which have a destructive effect on the salt formations. The choice of active substance depends on the type of stones formed in the gallbladder, as well as on their size.
This treatment course is prescribed to people who have formed stones occupy no more than half of the gallbladder. Before taking pharmaceuticals, the permeability of the ducts leading out to bile, as well as the contractility of the bile walls, must be checked. These indicators should be normal. The advantage of this treatment is that the patient can take drugs on the basis of bile acids regularly and for a long time, without fear for the occurrence of side effects and the development of complicated consequences.
To appoint pharmaceutical agents for resorption of gallstones should only the treating specialist after a full-scale examination. So, pharmacotherapy is contraindicated for people suffering from pathologies of the digestive tract and kidneys.
To date, to find information and annotation about a particular drug that has an antispasmodic and resolving effect on gallstones, it is possible without difficulty. But self-medication can not be engaged. Taking such drugs involves the exclusion of other drugs that contribute to the formation of gallstones.
The treatment course can last from six months to two years. Control over the process of dissolution of stones is carried out by means of ultrasound diagnostics. After recovery, be sure to perform preventive measures.
If the diameter of the gallstone is more than 15 mm, but does not exceed 30 mm, the attending specialists can crush them by physical impact. Most often, a shock wave is used to treat gallstone disease. This method is suitable only for people who have revealed no more than 4 stones in the gallbladder.
However, it is strictly contraindicated for patients suffering from such pathologies:
- chronic cholecystitis;
- peptic ulcer disease;
- violation of blood clotting.
Impact on gallstones is carried out by means of shock waves. The treatment course has up to 7 procedures. Stones are crushed into relatively small particles that through the ducts that remove bile, enter the duodenum. Often, treating specialists combine such a method of treatment with the use of drugs containing bile acids.
Removal of large gallstones
As medical practice shows, when diagnosing large-diameter gallstones, treating specialists strongly recommend patients to undergo surgery. Surgical treatment of cholelithiasis is carried out in two ways:
- incision of the walls of the peritoneum.
Laparoscopy is performed using a special tube equipped with a video camera and sensors. After inserting the fiber-optic tube into the gallbladder cavity, the treating specialist removes the stones. With special indications, as well as with a large diameter of the biliary chambers, a full-scale surgical intervention is performed under the influence of general anesthesia. In this case, peritoneal wall incisions are incised. If necessary, cholecystectomy can be performed, that is, the removal of the gallbladder.
Depending on the course of treatment chosen, the doctor will tell about the features of the recovery period. Unfortunately, in some cases recurrence of pathology may occur, that is, the re-formation of gallstones. To avoid this, a number of preventive measures should be implemented:
- take drugs that prevent the formation of calculus (in consultation with the attending specialist);
- stick to a dietary ration;
- take food by the hour, avoiding starvation;
- eliminate from the diet foods with a high concentration of cholesterol;
- get rid of excess body weight.
Gallstone disease must be treated under the supervision of qualified specialists, otherwise, against the background of the development of such a pathology, complications can occur, in particular:
- development of wall phlegmon;
- oncological diseases;
- the appearance of fistulas;
- purulent inflammatory processes.
Gallstone disease today ranks third in medical statistics for its prevalence. When primary symptoms appear, measures should be taken to alleviate the condition and reduce the pain syndrome during an attack, as well as immediately contact the attending specialist. Do not forget that only a doctor will be able to prescribe a complete, comprehensive and appropriate treatment. Be healthy!