The mood of children is changeable: they are merry, then they begin to be capricious and become sluggish. Whims we blame on changes in the weather, and weakness on the appearance of teeth. And if the baby's legs and hands are cold, we believe that he is cold. When these symptoms are observed all at once, it is considered a signal of lack of fluid in the body of the baby. Consider the signs of dehydration in a child.
Common signs of dehydration in a child
The main component of the body weight of a newborn baby is water, which reaches 80%. With the growth of the child, this figure decreases, and by adolescence, he is already reduced to 70%. In the body of an adult liquid is only 60-65%.
The presence of water in the composition of the cells of the body ensures the functioning of all vital systems. Its deficiency leads to malfunctions of metabolic processes and reduces the level of potassium and chlorine salts in the body. A deficiency of trace elements can trigger brain damage and liver failure.
Children are more prone to fluid loss than adults. If the replacement fluid is not normal, then make a diagnosis - dehydration. To prevent the severe consequences of dehydration, the symptoms of this disease seen in the early stages will allow.
The main causes of dehydration of the child's body are rooted in viral and bacterial infections. After infection, the child's body is poisoned by toxins, against which protective mechanisms work, which increase the risk of dehydration.
Signs of dehydration in a 2-year-old child, infant or older child are always the same:
- fever, with the body resisting infection;
- vomiting to get rid of microorganisms of the gastrointestinal tract;
- diarrhea to help remove toxins;
- Denial of food, preventing re-infection.
Along with infections, dehydration can cause worms, which often get inside the child with dirty fruits and vegetables, as well as contact with animals. Also to the dehydration of the body can lead:
- diabetes mellitus, accompanied by increased outflow of fluid from the urine;
- excessive sweating due to dressing the child out of season;
- hereditary pathology;
- pain in the throat when swallowing, which cause the child to stop drinking.
There are three degrees of dehydration.
Dehydration of this extent is most common. It is accompanied by a decrease in the weight of the patient to 5% and such signs as:
- the feeling of thirst - the child’s need for drinking doubles;
- bowel movements up to five times;
- rare and weak vomiting (in infants resembles belching).
The average degree of dehydration
This degree occurs with a decrease in weight from 6 to 8% and is observed on the second day after infection. Key features:
- loose stools up to 10 times per day with mucus and a small amount of blood;
- dryness of the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose;
- anxiety in the behavior of the baby;
- weak pulse;
- frequent vomiting;
- thick saliva;
- softness of the eyeballs;
- dropping the fontanel on the head of a baby;
- urine volume decreases;
- bluish color
Signs of severe dehydration
In this case, the main features are the same signs as with the moderate degree of dehydration, but in a more severe form. In addition, the following symptoms are observed:
- dry cornea;
- if you press the nail on the finger, then there is a white spot for more than two seconds;
- abundant vomitus;
- drying of the oral mucosa;
- the child does not urinate;
- skin loses elasticity;
- the fontanel size increases significantly;
- deep sunk eyes;
- bluish color of the skin;
- marble pattern on the skin;
- cold limbs;
- eyelids remain parted;
- increased pulse;
In this case, the child loses weight up to ten percent, and potassium ions are flushed out of the body.
There is also an extremely severe degree of dehydration in a child with fluid loss of up to 22% of weight. Such a lack of water slows down the metabolism in the tissues, and the processes may become irreversible.
What to do when a child develops dehydration symptoms?
Newborns are most at risk of dehydration. This is primarily due to the lack of sucking reflex in a child or a lack of milk in mommy. Symptoms of dehydration in infants can be seen back in the hospital. Moms need to pay attention to the activity of breast sucking the baby and his ability to swallow. It is important to learn how to feed the baby. If there is not enough milk, then these children are recommended artificial feeding mixtures.
If you find signs of dehydration in older children, call a doctor or ambulance. A mild degree without detecting any viruses is treated at home. The child is given solutions that help restore the water-salt balance, and a special diet is prescribed. With an average dehydration, it is necessary to place in a hospital where symptomatic treatment is carried out. Severe dehydration requires a full examination and appropriate therapy. Dehydration caused by bacterial invasion is treated with antibiotics.
To prevent dehydration in a child, it is necessary to take preventive measures. To do this, in a timely manner and in sufficient quantities, you must give the child to drink, avoid the heat in the summer and follow the rules of hygiene. However, no matter how hard we try, but to completely avoid infectious diseases, most of which can lead to dehydration of a small organism, we will not succeed. Our task is to notice in time the changes taking place with the child and, not expecting when it will pass by itself, seek qualified help. This is the only way to avoid serious consequences and preserve the health of the child.