Children's diseases - the most difficult test for parents. But even in such a situation it is necessary to maintain the ability to make the right decisions. One of the most common infections is scarlet fever. It is useful for every adult to know what the symptoms of this disease are in children and what actions need to be taken to help the child.
Scarlet fever is an infectious disease that is transmitted by airborne droppings, less commonly by households, which affects the skin and larynx. It is caused by hemolytic streptococcus group A. If you do not start treatment in time, serious complications up to a fatal outcome are possible. In the early stages of scarlet fever is easily confused with the usual sore throat, so parents should arm themselves with knowledge and be vigilant.
We remove the cunning mask from the face of treacherous scarlet fever
Children of preschool and primary school age most often suffer from this disease - from 1 year to 9 years. The first signs of a dangerous illness can be seen on the 12th day after infection:
- sudden rise in body temperature to 39-40 ° C.
- single attack of vomiting;
- general malaise;
- complaints of sore throat.
On examination of the larynx, there is a "flaming mouth" - a sharply delimited reddening of the palatine arches, a soft and partly hard palate. By the end of the day or the day after the onset of the disease, the rash appears - a punctate rash on a bright red background, sometimes accompanied by itching. Rash within a few hours cover:
- inner thighs;
- the folds of the arms;
Changes in the throat resemble lacunar, follicular or necrotic angina. A person without medical education can recognize scarlet fever by the child’s tongue: it becomes crimson, the nipples dramatically swell. The skin becomes dry and after 2 weeks begins to peel off, especially on the fingertips, palms and soles, exposing the pale pink surface. A sick boy or girl may have a fast heartbeat, blood pressure may rise, headaches often appear, and in the acute period of the disease, the liver is affected. With proper treatment, well-being is restored after 10-15 days of illness.
Scarlet fever can occur in:
- easy form. The clinical picture is a rash, inflammation of the larynx, general intoxication, which declines after 2-5 days;
- form of moderate severity (as described above);
- severe form, which, without medical intervention for 4-6 days leads to the death of the patient.
Severe form is:
- toxic (hyperthermia up to 41 ° C, headache, vomiting, convulsions, loss of consciousness, lowering blood pressure, slow pulse);
- septic (swollen lymph nodes, inflammation of the nasopharynx, otitis purulent).
In rare cases, the rash may be absent. The clinical picture becomes more severe and unpredictable, if the disease is combined with diphtheria, chicken pox, measles, and dysentery. In order to avoid the sad consequences, you should immediately contact your pediatrician, noticing the first signs of scarlet fever in children.
Comprehensive treatment - the key to a speedy recovery
If a child has mild to moderate scarlet fever, the doctor will not hospitalize him, but will definitely prescribe:
- penicillin group antibacterial drugs or erythromycin;
- allergy medications such as suprastin;
- vitamin and mineral complex.
It is recommended to rinse the throat with a 72% solution of dioxidine, furatsilin (1: 5000), herbal infusions: chamomile, calendula, sage.
But such measures will not be enough - you need to create optimal conditions for the small patient:
- bed rest until the body temperature drops to normal;
- comfort and cleanliness in the room;
- regular room ventilation;
- communication with relatives (except children);
- daily warm baths;
- variety in nutrition. Particular preference should be given to products containing ascorbic and nicotinic acid, vitamins of group B: cereals, beef, chicken and turkey, fruits and berries.
- drink plenty of liquids (fruit juices, sweet tea, mineral water).
In addition, you can help your child with such methods:
- with a slight rash put mustard plasters on the chest or stomach, from time to time rub the body with alcohol;
- put a warm compress on the neck;
- when eye inflammation can be done cold lotion for eyelids;
- with severe headaches and cramps, ice can be applied to the forehead;
- for earache, apply a cotton wool to the auricle, moistened with carbolic acid with glycerin in the ratio of 1:10 or olive oil;
- in case of swelling of the cervical glands, it is necessary to dip a thick fabric in water with vinegar, squeeze and wrap the child’s neck, and warm it with a scarf. Replace the compress after 20 minutes.
If as a result of complications of purulent foci of inflammation in the body (lymphadenitis, cellulitis, purulent otitis, mastoiditis), surgical intervention is necessary. In no case should you allow the development of this dangerous disease to take its course, because not only the health, but also the baby’s life directly depends on how quickly the symptoms are recognized and the treatment started. Scarlet fever in children is currently considered a disease in which physicians give a favorable prognosis, but being too careless is still dangerous.
Protect your baby from infection
In a class or group, after a sick child is isolated for 23 days, the following measures should be taken:
- thorough disinfection of all surfaces, furniture and toys;
- quarantine for 7 days;
- constant monitoring of the guys who came in contact with the patient;
- Children who have not previously suffered from scarlet fever and have communicated with an infected child are not allowed into the team during the week.
There is no special vaccine for scarlet fever. But it is worth noting that the epidemic of this disease often occurs in the autumn-winter period, when the immunity of babies is weakened. Therefore, in order to protect your child from danger, do not neglect:
- hardening and gymnastics;
- making a balanced diet;
- strict hygiene;
- timely detection and treatment of dental diseases, as well as tonsillitis, sinusitis, otitis.
Also for the prevention of scarlet fever in children it is necessary to take them away from areas with gassed and dusty air, to prevent injuries and beriberi. After the outbreak of the epidemic, after consulting with the doctor, you can resort to using drugs of bacterial origin, in particular, complexes of antigen-lysates (Imudon, IRS-19, etc.). The risk of scarlet fever is low if:
- in your home and in the institution are subject to sanitary standards;
- excessive crowding of children is not allowed;
- there is no deficiency of nutrients in the child’s body;
- The baby rests every year in a sanatorium-and-care facility.
One of the quite serious diseases, fraught with many complications, is scarlet fever in children. But, if symptoms are detected in time and turned to a clinic for medical help, in most cases the illness passes without a trace. The best protection for the child during the epidemic will be strict adherence to hygienic standards and activation of the body's defenses.