ORZ or ARVI - one of the most frequent pathologies. Acute respiratory problems have similar symptoms. However, the course of certain diseases can be much more serious than a common cold, causing undesirable consequences. The main difference in making a diagnosis is related to the nature of the pathogen, since infection can be caused not only by a virus.
There is an opinion that, regardless of whether or not to be treated, the disease retreats after 7 days. But it is not. If parents still try to cure children, in most cases they care about themselves a little. Against the background of an uncured cold, chronic disorders can develop. In adults, the prevention of influenza and ARVI, as well as directly targeted treatment of ARVI, are no less important than in children.
It should be understood that the spread of pathogenic microbes occurs by airborne droplets, that is, when we breathe. Next to you, a sick person can sneeze, cough or just talk. And that's all, the pathogens are released. Tactile infection is much less common, that is, through infected objects or food.
Causes of indisposition
In 90% of cases, the causative agent of the disease are viruses. The remaining number falls on other types of microorganisms. ARVI is usually considered a seasonal disorder. So a year can be divided into epidemiological periods when the number of ill people reaches about 20%. The announcement of a pandemic (a global epidemic) is made if the number of patients reaches 50%. That is, every second is infected.
Among all the varieties of acute respiratory infections, the flu is considered the most dangerous, since the consequences of the epidemic can be very deplorable. According to the World Health Organization, about 500 thousand people die from various strains in the world every year (the total number of deaths from various acute respiratory viral infections reaches 4.5 million cases a year worldwide). Complicates the fight against influenza viruses and the fact that today there are about 2 thousand strains of the disease of the respiratory tract. Of course, we should not forget that the virus is a living microorganism susceptible to mutation. Therefore, new vaccines are developed every year for a seemingly already known virus.
The flu virus with all its strains is only one of the causative agents of the SARS group. In total, there are more than two hundred. Therefore, it is impossible to begin treatment using traditional methods without thoroughly clarifying the nature of the pathogen.
The main peddler of a viral infection is the man himself. Having infected, during the incubation period, which lasts an average of 3-5 days, there is a general malaise, the first mild signs of infection appear. If the child feels ill, the mothers immediately take preventive and curative measures. Including the isolation of the baby. While the adults themselves will go to work to the "victorious end", thereby being a carrier of infection. That is why a “chain reaction” is so characteristic of collectives when one employee after another gets sick.
Usually our immune system tries to overcome the virus on its own. But sometimes she weakens due to:
- frequent stress;
- environmental pollution;
- substandard food;
- bad habits;
- chronic ailments;
- severe hypothermia.
How do SARS manifest themselves?
Symptoms and treatment of acute respiratory infections and acute respiratory viral infections in adults are typical for the whole group. In the very name - respiratory diseases - already lies the main area of destruction - the respiratory tract. A slight difference in the manifestations depends on the course of the disease, the patient's age, the nature of the pathogen.
By the way, certain viruses can provoke symptoms that are not typical for a cold. For example, the parainfluential virus causes hoarseness and distortion of the voice or its temporary loss. The main area of infection is the larynx and trachea, so this effect on the conversational ability. Under the influence of inflammation can get maxillary sinuses. But the characteristic elevated temperature may not be observed at all.
When rhinovirus infection there are signs of allergic irritation of the nasopharynx: sneezing, drying of the mucous membrane, tickling in the throat. And only after a cold will appear. But adenovirus infection causes swelling, swollen lymph nodes, plaque on the tonsils, pain in the eyes and abdominal pain. Respiratory syncytial infection is accompanied by attacks of breathlessness and wheezing in the lungs.
As mentioned, during the incubation period, acute respiratory viral infections cause general malaise and loss of appetite. In some cases, nausea, even vomiting. At this time, symptoms of otorhinolaryngitis may appear.
Characteristic symptoms of acute respiratory infections and SARS in adults:
- itching in the nasopharynx;
- sore throat;
- temperature rise;
- nasal congestion or heavy discharge;
- muscle aches and joints;
- redness of the mucous membrane of the throat;
- sometimes conjunctival inflammation of the eyes.
For the influenza virus, a sharp rise in body temperature and fever are the first signs. Cough, as one of the symptoms, can be different: dry and wet, "barking", muffled, squeezing, etc. By the way, after the disappearance of the main symptoms of the disease, that is, after 5-7 days, residual cough may be present for some time . Up to a few weeks.
Knowing the general picture of the disease and methods of exposure, it is possible to resort to treatment without medical assistance. In some cases, you need to immediately call an ambulance:
- intense heat, temperatures under forty, traditional antipyretic do not help;
- prolonged fever;
- disturbed consciousness, fainting;
- severe headache with numbness of the neck muscles;
- bleeding in sputum;
- choking cough, making breathing difficult;
- severe swelling of the respiratory system.
There is one more "but" in the manifestation of ARD - for each person the course of the disease is an individual process. From mild to the most severe forms, and even asymptomatic course of the disease.
Treatment of ARVI in adults: drugs
Any adequate treatment begins with a diagnosis. The basis of drug therapy against SARS is antiviral drugs. Especially used are already containing interferon (immune protein) or stimulating its natural production. Most drugs are taken orally. Some types of drugs are available in the form of sprays, ointments, rectal suppositories or inhalers.
Effective antiviral, immunostimulating and immunomodulatory drugs include:
- arbidol and others
Adults can safely take them taking into account contraindications (for example, pregnancy and lactation).
The next group of drugs is designed to eliminate the symptoms of the disease. This includes febrifugal, analgesic, decongestants, anti-inflammatory, vasoconstrictor, fortifying agents. As well as drugs against cough, to liquefy and better removal of sputum, a means to combat the common cold. The selection of medicines is carried out individually, based on the possibilities of using a particular medicine, and in view of the clinical picture of the disorder.
For example, the antipyretic drug paracetamol is considered to be very effective and safe. But antigrippin has a complex effect. Effectively undergoing treatment for cough with SARS in adults with a drug called Fervex.
In addition to synthetic means, there are many “popular” ways of dealing with acute respiratory infections:
- decoctions of herbs and berries, herbal infusions: dog rose, cranberry, chamomile, linden, raspberry, lingonberry;
- inhalation: eucalyptus, needles;
- nose drops: aloe, bryophyllum;
- Hot milk;
- onion and garlic.
The patient is recommended bed rest, especially during the acute course of the disease, plentiful warm drink. Sometimes rubbing, soaking feet; rinsing the nose and gargling. The patient should sleep more, not overwork. Indoor air should not be stale, stuffy, so regular airing is extremely necessary.
How to protect yourself?
Viruses outside the body of the carrier can survive for about 21 days. A healthy person can easily become infected if they visit a non-disinfected room where they had previously been ill. Therefore, san-epidemiological preventive measures are extremely important: airing and quartz-covering the premises, washing, washing and cleaning the items with which the patient has been in contact.
Prevention of influenza and SARS in adults consists of the following activities:
- routine and seasonal antiviral vaccination;
- healthy balanced diet;
- taking vitamin complexes;
- active lifestyle (including sports and hardening);
- rejection of bad habits;
- adherence to the daily routine;
- less stress;
- limited contact with already sick ARD;
- the use of personal protective equipment in places where SARS is sick (mask);
- hand hygiene, especially after visiting the street and public places.
Remember, it is better to prevent the disease than to be treated for a cold. Even the slightest manifestations of indisposition require attention and adequate response. A careless attitude towards one's health is one of the reasons for the appearance of chronic disorders that can significantly affect the quality of life. In addition, a person who has not undergone treatment or has not responded properly to the symptoms is a potential threat to the health of others.