Salmonellosis is an acute infectious disease that can lead to serious consequences. It is especially dangerous for children, the elderly and those with weakened immune systems. Usually, Salmonella infection occurs through water, food, and if hygiene rules are not followed. In addition to people, animals and birds can suffer from salmonellosis.
Salmonellosis: symptoms of the disease
Symptoms of the disease depends on the form of salmonellosis. There are 7 forms of the disease.
- Gastrointestinal - the most common form, which is quite acute. Symptoms of gastrointestinal salmonellosis: general weakness, dizziness, fever, malaise, chills, headache. Signs of a violation of the gastrointestinal tact increase rapidly: abdominal pain appears, vomiting appears, diarrhea occurs with frothy and greenish discharge. The tongue of the patient becomes dry with white bloom. When pressing on the stomach, the pain intensifies, convulsions begin, the blood pressure decreases, the nervous system is disturbed, a person may faint. The symptoms of the gastrointestinal form in adults end on day 5, the final recovery is observed after 2 weeks.
- Take a mild form without high temperature, with single vomiting and loose stools 3 times a day. A person comes to a normal state in 1-2 days, and full recovery is observed on the 3rd day.
- Severe form - fever lasts 3 - 5 days, repeated vomiting, diarrhea up to 20 times a day, pressure drops sharply, a weakened state of the body. By the nature of the development of a severe form of salmonellosis resembles dysentery.
- The typhoid form begins as a gastrointestinal, then the disease begins to resemble the symptoms of typhoid fever. Hallucinations, delirium, rash on the abdomen, the tongue becomes gray-brown in color, the liver and spleen increases, bloating is observed. With proper treatment, recovery occurs in 1 - 1.5 months.
- Septic - a rather rare form of the disease, which is observed only in the elderly, weak people and babies. It is characterized by profuse sweating, chills, jaundice, fever, purulent processes in organs and tissues.
- Asymptomatic form speaks for itself. A strong body alone copes with the infection, without disturbing the person.
- Bacteriological form - a person becomes a carrier of infection, excreting salmonella through feces. May be asymptomatic.
Salmonellosis: foods at risk
You can become infected with salmonellosis through unprocessed meat and dairy products, as well as expired and improperly stored foods. In the summer is not recommended to use cakes and cakes with cream. In addition, beware of convenience foods, pies, cold cuts and cold beetle sold on the market. Often the infection spreads through the eggs.
Salmonellosis: Safety Technology
In order not to become infected with salmonella, you need to follow certain rules:
- Do not buy in the heat products on the street;
- Avoid shopping for canned foods;
- Be sure to process meat and dairy products before consumption. Do not drink unboiled milk, do not eat raw sausages, minced meat, eggs and meat;
- Cream cakes and cakes must be exceptionally fresh;
- Boil or filter the water. Do not drink water in open ponds, lakes and springs. Do not cook food on water that is taken from a soil well.
- Be sure to wash your hands before eating;
- Start a separate meat knife;
- Roast meat and fish well;
- Buy dairy products only in trusted outlets;
- Give up on fast food at street kiosks in the summer.
If you do not start treatment in time, serious complications can arise, among which are the following:
- Heart failure;
- Liver failure;
- Infectious toxic shock;
- Swelling of the brain;
- Diseases of the urinary and biliary organs;
- In rare cases, pneumonia;
- Vascular collapse;
- Formation of arthritis, osteomyelitis, splenic endocarditis, meningitis, peritonitis, appendicitis, etc.
Treatment of the disease can only be carried out by an infectious disease physician. Usually, antibiotics are not prescribed for treatment, since the infection is resistant to these drugs. The basis consists in the correction of dehydration and proper nutrition (diet). Toxins are also eliminated from the body. First aid for salmonellosis is gastric lavage. At home, washing can not be carried out for children younger than 3 years.
Diet after salmonellosis
In severe cases, the patient is hospitalized, the stomach is washed and the water-salt balance is restored. During the diet it is important to drink at least 2 - 4 liters of pure water per day. Food will have to be temporarily abandoned.
After an acute period, the patient is transferred to a sparing diet, which includes the following products:
- Fermented milk products (kefir, ryazhenka, sour cream, sourdough, etc.);
- Vegetables (carrots and potatoes);
- Berries (cranberries, blueberries, wild rose, etc.);
- Fruits (lemons, apples, bananas, etc.);
These products will provide your body with lactic bacteria, normalize the intestinal microflora, organic acids and pectin substances, will remove the bacteria and toxins from the body.
During the diet period it is recommended to drink berry kissels and compotes, you can eat porridge on water (semolina, buckwheat and rice). Bread replace crackers. To maintain a normal level of protein will help lean meat, poultry and fish. Products must be carefully cooked. Food is recommended to be thoroughly chopped, so as not to cause irritation of the intestinal mucosa.
During the diet can not eat the following products:
- Sweets and pastries;
- Fatty meats, poultry and fish;
- Smoked meat;
- Legumes (peas, beans, etc.);
- Fresh milk;
The duration of the diet for salmonellosis is determined by the doctor and depends on the severity of the patient's condition. After the disappearance of the symptoms of the disease, it is recommended to adhere to a diet for some time to prevent complications.
Salmonellosis is a serious disease that requires timely treatment. At the first sign, be sure to consult a doctor! With a mild or asymptomatic form, the disease does not require treatment in a hospital, in all other cases hospitalization is recommended. Be sure to follow the rules of personal hygiene, the rules of cooking to avoid infection with salmonellosis.