Do you like homemade uncooked milk, raw eggs, cakes with protein cream and uncooked chicken? Then you are a potential "client" of the infection department, because you are seriously threatened with salmonellosis. Symptoms and treatment in adults of such a disease require a thorough discussion. How is it manifested and how is it treated?
What can lead to an unusual poisoning?
Summer is not only vacation, sea and vitamins. In the hot season, many instead of the beach are in a hospital bed with a diagnosis of salmonellosis. This is an acute disease of infectious nature. It is caused by tiny motile bacteria like sticks. They are distinguished by high survivability - they perfectly tolerate cold and room temperature.
The danger of this disease is that if untreated, the prognosis can be extremely unfavorable: the mortality rate is 1-2% of all patients. With the wrong treatment, there is a rapid and severe dehydration of the body against the background of general intoxication. Ailment can be very difficult.
Edible killers: where do salmonella live?
Among the sources of Salmonella contamination are many delicacies that often appear on our table. Malicious bacteria can enter the body along with such goodies:
- chicken eggs (raw or soft-boiled);
- smoked or poorly heat-treated chicken;
- meat with blood;
- fresh milk (without boiling);
- ice cream;
- cream biscuits made from raw egg whites;
- boiled water;
How can you get infected?
It is very easy to pick up treacherous bacteria: it is enough to eat an infected product or to wash your hands badly after it is cooked. There is a high risk of getting sick with salmonella and those who drink raw water from a tap or ponds.
As a rule, a person picks up the disease, in contact with farm animals. Carriers are birds: chickens, ducks, geese. Wild animals such as bears, wolves, beavers, foxes, arctic foxes are also carriers of such microorganisms. Pets can also share dangerous bacteria, especially cats.
Sick people and carriers of bacteria also pose a great threat to the healthy. How is salmonellosis transmitted from person to person? Salmonella are excreted along with saliva, feces and urine. They are present in the nasal secretions. Moreover, the bacterium carrier itself may feel quite beautiful, but at the same time it infects all the others with whom it contacts.
Airborne this disease is not transmitted.
How much is conspired?
The first symptoms of the disease do not appear immediately after infection. Salmonellosis, like many other diseases, has a latent period. As a rule, it lasts 8-72 hours. However, there are times when it stretches for a week. The maximum latent period lasts 10 days.
The most important thing: with what symptoms does the illness flow?
Salmonella disease can manifest itself with a different set of symptoms, depending on its form:
- gastrointestinal. It accounts for 80-90% of episodes. It features the following symptoms: temperature up to 38-40˚, chills, nausea, vomiting, indigestion (blood, greens and mucus are present in the feces). The patient complains of abdominal pain, headache, muscle and joint pain, thirst. He has a dry tongue covered with bloom;
- cholera (rarely diagnosed). In its manifestations it resembles cholera: the patient is tormented by severe diarrhea (it looks like rice water), incessant vomiting, a terrible chill, a sharp pain in the abdomen, general weakness, convulsions, sudden weight loss, facial cyanosis. Heart failure and pulmonary edema may develop, resulting in death on the first day of illness;
- flu-like Initially, there are signs of damage to the respiratory system, then there is a jump in temperature of up to 40 degrees, pain in the joints and muscles, fever, loss of strength, rhinitis, damage to the conjunctiva, sore throat, pharyngitis. Manifestations of intestinal infection are mild;
- typhoid-like. At the onset of the disease, symptoms of acute gastroenteritis are noted, followed by temporary relief. This is followed by a rise in temperature and dyspeptic manifestations;
- septic. It starts with signs of stomach damage, then fever joins, purulent foci appear in different organs.
What methods are diagnosed salmonellosis?
Differential diagnosis of salmonellosis is carried out using such measures:
- history taking;
- examination of the patient;
- coprogram. Leukocytes are found in feces;
- Buck research of feces, emetic masses, blood, urine, bile, water obtained after washing the stomach, products on which suspicion fell (salmonella is detected in this material);
- antibiotic program - testing the sensitivity of bacteria to antibiotics;
- serological examination of blood for determination of pathogen antigens.
How to properly treat?
Do I need to go to the hospital? Yes, in severe cases. If the disease is mild, then hospitalization in the hospital is not required, but the drugs should be prescribed by an infectious diseases doctor - salmonellosis is in his competence. Symptoms and treatment in adults are closely interrelated, but usually it includes such activities:
- a sparing diet - jelly, steam, boiled dishes, rice porridge and oatmeal on the water;
- antibiotics - Levomitsetin, Ampicillin;
- gastric lavage with 2-3 liters of 2% soda solution (this is a mandatory procedure);
- fluid replacement with the help of Regidron, Glucosolan, Oralit;
- intravenously - Acesol, Trisol, Reopoliglyukin, Chlorsol, Gemodez, Poliglyukin (in solution). It helps to remove intoxication and normalize the water-salt balance;
- Holenzim, Mezim, Panzinorm, Festal - to improve digestion;
- Smecta, Enterodez - bind toxins and remove them from the body;
- bacteriophages salmonella.
Home treatment is carried out in the same way.
Salmonellosis is an extremely unpleasant and dangerous disease. Try to prevent contamination: follow the rules of cooking and storing food, wash your hands more often, eat at home. Any malfunction of the digestive tract in combination with a rise in temperature is the reason for urgent consultation with professionals. In the case of Salmonella infection, this is especially important.