Influenza, colds, ARVI - which is not a cold season for a person! And now here's another "horror story" - intestinal flu. In medical language, this disease is called "rotavirus gastroenteritis" or simply "rotavirus infection." In adults, it is diagnosed worldwide. What is the danger of this disease, how does it manifest and how to treat it?
Gastric flu is an enemy that is better never to meet
At first glance, it looks like a cold, just why does the stomach ache and diarrhea suffer? And all because it was not lucky to pick up the RNA rotavirus. It is a pathogen that causes an acute infectious disease - rotavirus infection (RI). It makes up 15% of the total number of acute intestinal infections. Every year, such a disease is found in 25 million people, and from 600 to 900 thousand cases are fatal. The fourth part of all patients dies. Adults carry the disease much easier than children.
Rotavirus was discovered in 1973. It looks like a small wheel by appearance, which is why it received such a name (in Latin, rota means “wheel”). Its size is about 75 nm, and it is highly resistant: it does not die during freezing and chlorination.
How do you get rotavirus infection?
Only people can be the source of infection and the "keeper" of the virus, this pathogen is not transmitted from domestic animals. There are several ways of transmission:
- through everyday objects used by the patient;
- by consuming virus-infected products (especially dairy products) or water;
- respiratory (sneezing, coughing).
You can become infected from a healthy person who is a carrier of infection, and from people who have recently had this disease. If in the family or in the team, someone became a victim of rotavirus, then everyone else will get sick with an interval of 3-5 days (those who do not have active immunity to this disease).
How long is the latent period of illness?
Having settled in the body, the virus chooses the mucous membrane of the small intestine as a place of residence. For a while he does not know about. The first signs of rotavirus infection in adults may appear 15 hours or even a week after infection. But most often the virus declares itself in 1-2 days.
Characteristic symptoms of rotavirus infection in adults
For the disease is characterized by an acute onset (this is very similar to the usual flu). By the end of the first day of the “start”, the clinical picture of RI is evident. First, the patient complains of general weakness, headache, his appetite is sharply reduced. Then rotavirus infection in adults is manifested by the following symptoms:
- epigastric pain (abdomen, intestines). They can be intense or aching;
- diarrhea. The feces become frequent (from 3 to 9 times a day), fluid (watery), but they do not show any blood or mucus. The feces have a sharp odor and a hazy white color. Diarrhea can last for about a week;
- flatulence. Rumbling in abdomen;
- the temperature is kept at around 37.7 degrees. Rarely does it rise to 38˚ and higher. Sometimes the numbers on the thermometer remain normal;
- white tongue appears on the tongue, lymph nodes on the neck are enlarged.
Frequent visits to the toilet lead to rapid dehydration.
Such bright manifestations of the disease are observed in only 10% of adult patients. Often the disease is completely different scenario. Nausea and vomiting may be absent altogether, and the stool becomes liquid, but not too frequent.
No matter how the disease progresses, the patient should be isolated, as he is the peddler of the infection.
What medical methods are used for diagnosis?
The doctor will put the primary diagnosis on the basis of complaints, examination, specific symptoms and the general epidemiological situation (mass incidence of people). Examination of the patient includes a study of feces and blood. To detect rotavirus in the stool, a special rota test is performed. It is made in express mode, so the result will be known in a few minutes.
But it is possible to confirm the correctness of the diagnosis on the basis of the usual laboratory examination of feces and general blood test.
Rotavirus infection - treatment in adults: drugs, diet and folk remedies
The body of an adult is adapted to such shocks. In addition, these patients have a fairly strong immunity, so the disease usually proceeds in a mild form. The treatment is carried out at home and does not include any special methods and potent drugs. It aims to eliminate the symptoms and prevent dehydration. On average, symptoms of damage to the digestive system persist from 2 to 6 days.
Treatment of rotavirus infection in adults sometimes causes difficulty in patients. Some patients believe that everything will pass by itself, and not cured at all. Others begin to swallow all pills in a row, from antiviral to antibacterial. The right strategy will only choose a doctor!
So, how to treat rotavirus infection in adults and how to do it correctly? Here are the drugs that are used to alleviate the condition of the patient and prevent complications:
- To reduce intoxication, sorbents are assigned - Smekta, Enterosgel;
- Regidron is given every 30 minutes to replenish the fluid supply (1 sachet per 1 liter of water);
- if the disease is severe, then intravenous glucose with colloidal solutions is used;
- from the pain in the abdomen helps No-shpa;
- Since viruses are not sensitive to antibiotics, it is useless to take such drugs. This will only increase the load on the digestive tract. Acceptance of antibacterial agents can be indicated only if a bacterial infection has joined the rotavirus. The doctor may prescribe Enterofuril or Furazalidone;
- to adjust the work of the digestive organs, prescribe enzymes - Creon, Festal;
- Antiviral agents give a good effect against rotavirus infection: Arbidol, Cycloferon, Ingavirin;
- it is better not to churn the temperature up to 38˚, since the virus dies precisely at these numbers. If it has risen to 39 degrees, then it is better to try to knock it down with folk remedies - wiping, cool compress. If alternative methods do not help, then you can drink antipyretic pill (Paracetamol);
- To adjust the work of the intestine, prescribed probiotics (Linnex).
Particular attention is paid to diet: this is one of the main "drugs" for RI. Dairy products should be excluded from the patient's diet. The menu should be boiled or steamed. Be sure to drink plenty of: a decoction of dried fruit, rice water, clean water. You can eat jelly, boiled vegetables (potatoes, carrots), semi-liquid rice porridge, baked apples.
How not to get sick with intestinal flu?
In the period of exacerbation of such ills, the prevention of rotavirus infection comes to the fore. In adults, it implies specific measures - vaccination and hygiene measures: hand washing, use of clean and heat-treated products. Contact with a sick or recently ill person should be avoided.
The prognosis for RI in adults is usually favorable. After a person has suffered this disease, an antigen is formed in his body that will not allow re-infection. But if the disease is easy, then it is still possible.