Today, our story about vaccinations, or rather, about the vaccine, which is used in all countries of the world without exception and has saved millions of lives. This is a DPT vaccine. It provides prevention of several diseases and at the same time does not increase the risk of complications, and also does not interfere with the quality of the produced immunity. What could be the reaction to DPT vaccination?
Why do I need to get a DPT vaccine?
Many vaccinations are currently being introduced as combination vaccines to reduce the number of injections. The classic combination vaccine is DTP - diphtheria + tetanus + pertussis. In the world pediatric practice, vaccines of the fifth and sixth order are increasingly used, for example, diphtheria + tetanus + pertussis + polio + hemophilic infection of type B.
The complex DTP vaccine ensures that a child develops sustained immunity from such diseases as:
- K - whooping cough. This is a pathology of severe bacterial etiology. Its development is especially dangerous in babies, as it can lead to suffocation. To develop immunity requires 4 vaccinations, three of which are carried out in infancy, and the last in a year.
- D - diphtheria. In this disease, the bacteria form a very toxic substance that causes severe damage to organs, especially the heart, liver and kidneys. Paralysis of respiration and death are possible. Vaccination is carried out in 4 stages: 3 vaccinations in infancy and 1 dose in a year.
- C - tetanus. Columnar bacteria produce poison that can cause muscle cramps and even death from respiratory paralysis. These bacteria are common everywhere. Infection most often occurs through injuries to the skin. Risks associated with the disease: about 50% of infected people die. For the development of sustainable immunity also requires phased vaccination: 3 vaccinations in the first months of life and one in about a year.
- And - means the adsorbent. This substance is aluminum hydroxide, which, when injected, is injected into a muscle and remains in it for a long time without being absorbed into the blood. During this period, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids absorb it, which contributes to the development of immunity to such diseases.
It must be recognized that of all existing vaccines, the reaction to DTP vaccination in children is the most severe.
DTP tolerance and response
It is important to understand that a vaccine, like any other drugs, can have side effects in addition to the desired effect. Of course, in some cases it can cause a health disorder, but you need to think about the fact that if a substance does not have side effects, there is a strong suspicion that it does not have the desired effect.
Usually, both the primary vaccine and revaccination of DTP is transferred with the same reaction, which can be divided into three degrees of severity:
- Mild side effects normal to this vaccine. First of all, they manifest themselves as a local reaction to the DPT vaccination in the form of redness and slight swelling in the injection area. The temperature slightly rises to 38 ° C. A child may be lethargic and drowsy, refuse to eat. In one of ten cases, diarrhea or vomiting may occur.
- Side effects of moderate severity (1 child out of 15 thousand) - body temperature rises above 39.5 ° C, and the baby cries heavily for at least three hours. Seizures may also occur.
- Complications of a severe nature (1 case per 1 million) are a severe allergic reaction to the components of the vaccine. Even less often, the reaction occurs in the form of neurological disorders.
Any of the possible adverse reactions to DTP vaccination manifest themselves during the first days after vaccination, and over the next two to three days, the symptoms gradually disappear on their own or with minimal use of medications.
Separately, you need to stay on the allergic reaction. The fact is that the composition of the vaccine, along with the antigens necessary for eliciting an immune response, may contain some supplements. And even if the first or second vaccination was excellent, the third DPT vaccine can cause an allergic reaction.
Another feature is that the period of DTP vaccination coincides with a no less important vaccine against poliomyelitis. Therefore, they can combine. Recently, complex DPT + polio vaccines have also been used. If we talk about the reaction to vaccinations DTP and polio, it is worth noting that the complications are practically absent or expressed in mild upset stomach for 2-3 days.
How to avoid side effects?
To avoid serious complications of DTP vaccination, use the following guidelines:
- the child should have a normal lifestyle: a proper balanced diet, regular walks on the street, hardening, hygiene, prevention of ARVI;
- the child must be healthy at the time of vaccination;
- reduce the load on the gastrointestinal tract three days before vaccination;
- no vaccination can be given if, before this, the child has constipation for at least three days;
- at the time of vaccination, the body should not be deficient in fluids;
- in advance, stock baby antipyretic.
- Marina: "I would like to read reviews about the reaction to the second DPT vaccine, because three days after revaccination, our throat turned red, a runny nose appeared, and there was a solid swelling on the pedicle at the injection site. Today is the fifth day; that leg hurts. We make lotions with magnesia. "
- Irina: "My seven-year-old daughter yesterday at school did a revaccination of DTP, at the injection site a slight condensation and reddened. And in the evening she was itching until she fell asleep. During previous vaccinations, this was not the case."
It is important for parents to know what DTP should do and this is not discussed. As for the reaction to the vaccine, to a greater extent it is determined by the preparedness of the child and his individual perception.