Not every person knows what is pulmonary embolism, which is more and more often detected in recent years. It is an independent disease with its characteristic symptoms, causes, course, and outcome. Unfortunately, this condition is one of the causes of sudden death. In life, it is diagnosed only in 30% of cases.
What is TEL?
Pulmonary embolism or pulmonary artery thromboembolism is considered to be a risky and serious disease, characterized by abnormalities in the functioning of the heart and blood vessels. The moment when the artery of the lungs is blocked by a clot, received the name of pulmonary embolism. In itself, the structure of the pulmonary arteries resembles a branchy tree, in each branch of which overlap with a blood clot may occur, leading to impaired blood circulation, and as a result, in almost 55% of cases - death.
Pulmonary embolism: causes
The key reason is a pathology in the blood circulation. When the vessel walls are broken, in the area of disturbance the blood begins to clot, becomes thicker, to “close” the thinned place.
Cases of vascular damage:
- if a catheter was installed;
- in the process of surgical intervention in the cardiovascular system;
- vein prosthetics;
- after the coming of flembotrosis;
- with varicose veins;
- if the vessels are transmitted by a tumor or during pregnancy;
- injuries from bone fragments;
- passive lifestyle;
Signs of pulmonary embolism
The symptoms are different, depends on the form of the disease, emit key:
- low blood pressure;
- arrhythmia, tachycardia during dyspnea, also in a calm state;
- the color of the skin changes from light blue to dark gray. The process begins on the face, goes to the neck, going down to the entire sternum.
With acute course:
- shortness of breath;
- stabbing sensations in the area of the heart with severe pain;
- shock conditions;
- breathing becomes slow or stops altogether.
Intermediate state between key and acute states:
- at some moments there is not enough oxygen, which leads to systematic infarction of the pulmonary vessels;
- pain spreading throughout the sternum;
- cramps and cramps, especially in the elderly.
Chronic form of pulmonary embolism after systematic blockages of arteries that pass through the lungs. The started course of the disease is transformed into a chronic form and has the following features:
- all the time is not enough oxygen;
- complexion changes from usual to blue, gray;
- pain felt throughout the sternum.
In the most common cases of pulmonary embolism, people in the elderly population are also susceptible, and sometimes develop in patients with vascular constriction, problems with heart valves, and increased blood clotting.
People who underwent operations fall into the risk group, the degree of pulmonary embolism is very high:
- surgical intervention in the pelvis associated with the problems of male and female organs;
- surgery on the intestines and throughout the gastrointestinal tract.
Female representatives are twice as often exposed to this disease as men. An interesting point that most people are sick are those who have the 2nd blood group.
In itself, cure focuses on the protection of human life and the resumption of normal blood circulation. The operative method involves the separation of the blood clot from the vessel. When contraindications to surgery, applied conservative treatment, through which the clot can dissolve. Use fibrinolytic drugs, the effect may be noticeable after two hours. Heparin is then administered to prevent new blood clots. All patients, regardless of the type and complications of pulmonary embolism, should receive a comprehensive treatment, along with oxygen infusion.
The most important thing is to immediately call an ambulance. While she goes, the patient is moved to a flat surface.
- if medical workers say that clinical death has occurred, they take rehabilitation measures;
- heparin and painkillers like analgin and promedol;
- further, it all depends on the situation, if there was a cessation of breathing - one therapy, if tachycardia appeared - they will do everything to normalize the heart rhythm;
- aminophilin is intravenously injected in order to expand the vessels. The patient's life is supported both at the place of arrival and on the way to the intensive care unit.
In conclusion, it should be said that pulmonary embolism is a very serious pathological condition that can lead to death or disability. At the slightest suspicion, you should immediately contact a doctor for a diagnostic examination, alertness regarding the situation should be maximized. As practice shows, pulmonary thromboembolism in treatment does not tolerate a windy attitude! Carefully monitor the dangerous symptoms of the disease.