Colonoscopy is the most qualitative and complex method of examination of the intestine, which allows examining the thick part from the inside throughout its length. The procedure is similar to the sigmoidoscopy, but the latter provides an opportunity to study only 60 cm. Today even its variety has appeared - a virtual colonoscopy, but its spectrum of possibilities is somewhat narrower, therefore the classical procedure continues to be almost the only effective one. How painful is it, and how to prepare for colonoscopy correctly?
Colonoscopy of the intestine: algorithm and features of the procedure
Colonoscopy in its classical sense implies insertion into the anal canal of the probe, which is carried out along the entire length of the colon. This makes it possible to carefully examine not only the general condition of the body, but also its relief, the state of the mucous membrane. In addition, a colonoscopy can be combined with a biopsy — taking a small number of cells for further study, as well as with surgical intervention — removing a certain amount of affected tissue, stopping bleeding, and removing a foreign body.
- In domestic medicine, a referral for a colonoscopy comes from a gastroenterologist and is carried out with him: according to the decree of 2010, 2 colonoscopes should be present in his office, to which kits for biopsy should be attached. The procedure is performed by the endoscope doctor.
It is believed that every patient who is registered with a gastroenterologist should undergo a prophylactic colonoscopic examination, especially if there is a suspicion of cancer of the rectum, as well as after operations on this organ. As for the primary examination, it can be sent to almost any disorder related to the intestines: from ulcerative colitis to etymology to polyps and tumors. In particular, colonoscopy is indicated for:
- inflammatory diseases of the colon: including Crohn's disease;
- large intestine obstruction;
- internal bleeding;
- prolonged abdominal pain;
- low-grade fever, anemia;
- prolonged intractable constipation;
- diagnosis of inflammation in the elderly.
In addition, it is impossible not to mention the contraindications that are explained by gross actions with the probe (this also causes discomfort during the procedure).
- Contraindications to colonoscopy are the acute stages of Crohn's disease, as well as ulcerative colitis, because patient deterioration is possible.
Separately, it should be noted that there is a virtual colonoscopy based on tomography, but, as already mentioned, it will not replace a full-fledged real examination - any therapeutic manipulations with it are impossible. Irrigoscopy is also carried out not on the basis of x-rays, but its possibilities are much less: it does not allow to track in detail the deformations of the relief and gives only a general picture.
How to prepare for colonoscopy colon "Fortrans"?
Of course, colonoscopy is not the most pleasant procedure, therefore, to reduce the proportion of discomfort is required to conduct training of the intestine. It is divided into several stages and begins 3-4 days before the appointed time. Some people underestimate the role of competent preparation, however, it makes the examination of the intestines not only less painful, but also allows you to get the most reliable result, which is not affected by situational factors.
- 4 days before the procedure begins detoxification: you need to ease the patency of the rectum and maximally clean it. For this, not only the diet is changed, but also some medications are added that allow for a quick detoxification with saline - lavage.
- The menu should contain liquid food, as well as a vegetable group of products: daily broths (not strong), vegetables and fruits (not sweet) are required, from which juices are squeezed and salads are prepared. Excluded meat, fixing cereals (rice, barley, buckwheat, wheat), pasta, confectionery.
- A day before the procedure, a saline enteral solution is injected into the diet, which is purchased at the pharmacy. Of all the options on the domestic market - "Dufalak", "Fleet Phospho-Soda", "Fortrans" - the best has proven itself the last.
If the procedure is in the morning
- The day before the visit to the endoscope, you need to start lavage: dissolve the bag of "Fortrans" in warm water (1 l), drink the entire volume of liquid in the interval from 17:00 to 18:00. Repeat these steps 3 times between 18:00 and 21:00. Those. 4 liters of solution are required to be stretched for 4 hours. Meals should be completed at 14:00 on a given day - thus, after eating, Fortrans is taken after 3 hours.
- If such a schedule is too hard to tolerate, you can ease it, but then “Fortrans” is combined with “Dufalac”. Also, one day before the procedure at lunchtime (15:00), drink Duphalac, dissolved in water (200 ml of syrup per 400 ml of water). After 2 hours, again with small intervals for an hour, drink Duphalac, but only 100 ml per 900 ml of pure water. And from 20:00 to 21:00 slowly drink a bag of "Fortrans", dissolved in 1 liter of water.
When the colonoscopy in the afternoon
- Everything is a little easier here because the drug intake is divided into 2 parts, demarcated at night: 2 liters of solution are taken between 18:00 and 20:00 (also 1 sachet per 1 l of water), and the next morning you need to drink another 2 liters - time period from 6:00 to 8:00.
- According to the combined scheme "Duphalac" also remains at 15:00 and 17:00, and "Fortrans" is transferred in the morning - it is drunk between 6:00 and 7:00, also a sachet of 1 liter of water.
It is recommended that the colonoscopy be performed under general anesthesia, but if there are any contraindications for it, you should inform the doctor at the time of issuing the referral. In the absence of anesthesia, an intravenous injection is put in to suppress part of the pain.
- Irrigoscopy: what is it?
- Endoscopy of the nasopharynx: indications and contraindications
- Frequent or permanent burping with odorless air
- Drug Fortrans
Remember that on the day of the procedure (regardless of the set time) it is forbidden to eat food, and after a colonoscopy you must wait 45-60 minutes, after which you can eat liquid and light foods in small quantities: porridge, yogurt, mashed potatoes.