The formation of polyps in the gallbladder is a rather frequent phenomenon. However, the disease is very dangerous for humans, so it requires effective treatment. The danger of the disease only increases, if we take into account the fact that its symptoms are often hidden. Polyps can only be detected through special studies.
Polyps in the gall bladder: symptoms
There are several varieties of polyps that occur in the gallbladder.
- Inflammatory polyp is an inflammatory reaction of the mucous membrane of the gallbladder. Manifested in the form of proliferation of granulation tissue.
- Cholesterol polyp - elevation in the mucous membrane of the gallbladder, containing cholesterol deposits.
- Papilloma of the gallbladder is a benign tumor. It is a growth in the form of papillae.
- Adenoma of the gallbladder is also a benign tumor, representing the proliferation of glandular tissue.
The patient may not know that there are polyps in his gall bladder. The disease most often proceeds hidden and its symptoms are not detected for a long time. In most cases, gallbladder polyps are detected by chance as a result of a survey. The appearance of nausea after eating is often the only symptom of the disease.
In more rare cases, there may be pain on the right side of the ribs after a meal. This symptom appears in the event that the polyp is in the neck of the gallbladder and may be an obstacle to the flow of bile. Also, due to the presence of a polyp, and specifically due to the part of the tumor falling into the bile ducts, gallstone colic may occur. The greatest danger of polyps is that it can become malignant from a benign tumor.
Polyps in the gall bladder are inherited, so close relatives of the patient fall into the risk group. With the disease, only a few polyps can occur, such an ailment is called "multiple polyps", or polyposis is formed when there are very many growths.
They are formed in the internal organs, which have a mucous membrane. In the gallbladder, polyps form as a result of the occurrence of chronic inflammatory processes. In this case, the mucous membrane is inflamed and restored - this leads to formations.
True polyps consist of a round head and a thin narrow leg. Other formations similar in appearance may also be called, for example, papillomas or adenomas.
Polyps in the gallbladder: diagnosis
- Ultrasound examination (ultrasound) will help detect the formation in the gallbladder. Polyps show up in the form of a rounded growth associated with the wall of the body. Diagnostics can also be performed using endoscopic ultrasonography.
- The apparatus for this procedure resembles gastroscopy. At the end of the long endoscope is fixed ultrasonic sensor. The patient swallows the device, the device is inserted into the duodenum, which is adjacent to the gall bladder. This diagnostic method helps to obtain a more accurate result. In this way, you can get a clear image of the various layers and structures on the walls of the gallbladder. A high-quality image is achieved at the expense of higher ultrasound frequencies, as compared to frequencies with conventional ultrasound.
Treatment of polyps in the gallbladder
Treat the polyps that have arisen in the gallbladder can only be surgically. If they just started to form and grow, they should delete. To determine whether polyps have grown, you need to do a control ultrasound. Formations of less than 10 mm in size with a leg should be monitored at least once every six months. It is necessary to carry out such procedure within 2 years. Then the frequency of control measures is reduced to 1 time per year and is carried out for life. If one of these studies reveals polyp growth, the formation must be urgently removed.
The risk of transformation into malignant tumors carries polyps larger than 10 mm. They must be removed immediately. If polyps exhibit clinical manifestations, then the gallbladder should be removed. In this case, this is the only way out, regardless of the size of the polyps.
If the growth does not have a leg, control measures should be carried out every 3 months, because such formations pose a greater risk of malignant degeneration than leg polyps. Polyp growth is considered fast if its size increases by more than 2 mm during the year.
The most common type of surgery for the treatment of polyps in the gallbladder is laparoscopic cholecystectomy. It consists in removing the gallbladder through endoscopic technology. Some cases of the disease involve only the removal of the polyps themselves, while the organ and its functions are preserved. This intervention also uses endoscopic technology. However, this approach should be used with caution, since its results are not yet fully understood.
An important part of the treatment of polyps in the gallbladder is special diet. Experts recommend to exclude from the diet mushrooms, sorrel, legumes, smoked meats, spinach, fatty meat and animal fats, pickles, sweets, baking, canned food, spices. It is undesirable to eat foods that irritate the mucous: fresh onions, garlic and radish. In addition, it is recommended to reduce salt intake. During the diet, eat only boiled meat or poultry, eggs (no more than 2 pieces a week) soft-boiled or as an omelette, sweet fruits, boiled vegetables, low-fat cottage cheese, mashed potatoes and white dried bread. There is a need in small portions several times a day.
Polyps in the gallbladder is a serious disease that often involves surgery as a treatment. Therefore, in the case of detection of formations, start treatment and diet should be immediately, so that the polyps do not acquire a malignant form.