If you have not heard of such a disease as mononucleosis, its symptoms and treatment in children, we advise you to study in as much detail as possible, since your favorite child is 95% more likely to have such an illness (if this has not happened yet). How does the disease proceed, how does it threaten and how difficult is it to treat?
The meeting is almost inevitable: infectious mononucleosis - what is it and what leads to?
Previously, many parents had no idea about the existence of infectious mononucleosis and, moreover, did not assume that such a sore was in their family. Meanwhile, up to 90% of the adult population are carriers of this virus, and almost everyone has time to get sick before the end of adolescence.
If you have already managed to get scared, we hasten to tell you what it is - mononucleosis. This is an infectious viral disease that affects mainly children from 2 to 5 years old, schoolchildren and teenagers. In this case, boys get sick more often. Provocateur disease are Epstein-Barra virus and cytomegalovirus. Mononucleosis is often called the "kissing disease". And it's not romance at all - just an infection occurs through saliva. The virus does not fly through the air, but it is easy to pick it up through common objects of use (dishes, towels, toys). However, there is an assumption that it is still possible infection and airborne droplets.
Mononucleosis in children usually passes fairly easily and without complications. It does not need to be treated by a special technique (however, it has not yet been developed). But this does not mean that it is not necessary to contact a pediatrician! Although the prognosis is generally positive, sometimes such unpleasant and dangerous consequences of the disease as pneumonia, otitis media, angina, encephalitis, meningitis and damage to the nervous system make themselves felt.
What are the hallmarks of the disease?
The most important thing that moms and dads need to know about a disease such as infectious mononucleosis in children is its symptoms. They are directly related to inflammation of the lymphoid tissue. And what organs are “made” of such a fabric? These are spleen, liver, lymph nodes, tonsils. Hence the characteristic symptoms of the disease:
- a strong increase in all lymph nodes (especially large are the nodes on the back of the neck);
- increase in the size of the spleen and liver. In this case, the spleen can grow so much that the tissues do not stand up, and their rupture occurs (in this case, the urgent help of surgeons is required);
- sore throat;
- nasal congestion and a very strong runny nose, which causes the child to breathe through the mouth and provokes deafening snoring;
- rash in the form of small pink spots, which does not bother the patient.
These are specific manifestations of infectious mononucleosis, but along with them there are also common symptoms. These include:
- temperature (more often it stays within 37.5˚ or remains low-grade, but sometimes rises to 38-38.5˚);
- intense headache (like migraine);
- increased sweating;
- muscle aches;
- apathy and lethargy;
- pain when swallowing;
- lack of appetite;
- pain in the abdomen;
- possible herpetic eruptions on the lips.
It is worth noting that the disease has a hidden period. It lasts an average of 5-15 days, but it happens that the symptoms of infection are absent for a month and a half.
Why the disease is not always known and what diagnostics will help to avoid it?
The first thing that makes mononucleosis suspect is symptoms. And treatment in children, if such an assumption is confirmed, must occur under the control of a pediatrician. First, the doctor will examine the sick child, probe his liver, lymph nodes, examine the tonsils, and then issue a blood test (total, IgM, IgG Epstein-Barr). When mononucleosis changes its composition: it appears special leukocytes (doctors call them atypical mononuclear cells). An ultrasound examination of the spleen and liver can also be prescribed.
But how to cure a child?
There are no special methods of therapy. Symptomatic treatment and strengthening of the body as a whole. If the disease is too severe, then hormonal anti-inflammatory drugs may be prescribed - a short course of Prednisolone, 20-60 mg per day for no more than 7 days (but this happens very rarely, with the threat of asphyxia).
So how is the treatment usually done? The scheme is as follows:
- the patient needs complete rest;
- need to give plenty of drink;
- good effect is given by gargling;
- vitamin therapy is shown (B-complex);
- from the temperature give antipyretic (Panadol in syrup, Ibuprofen);
- antiseptics to eliminate the symptoms of angina - Imudon, IRS-19;
- Antivirals can be used - Anferon children, Viferon, Cycloferon. According to individual testimony - Flagyl, Trihopol;
- if strong pathological changes in the liver are detected, then diet, choleretic drugs and hepatoprotectors are prescribed;
- when attaching a secondary microbial microflora (which threatens with the development of serious complications) resort to the help of pennicillin antibiotics (Ampicillin, Amoxicillin). In this case, probiotics are also used - Narine, Atsipol, Primadofilus children.
A lot of attention is paid to such a disease as mononucleosis in children, its symptoms and treatment, Komarovsky. Yevgeny O. focuses the attention of parents on the fact that one should not try to cure this disease with the help of antibacterial agents, since it is in mononucleosis that in most cases they give an allergic reaction. The use of antibiotics will not facilitate, but only worsen the condition of the patient, cause itching and irritation. His main recommendation is not to panic, but try to calmly survive the exacerbation stage. He encourages parents: in spite of the seriousness of the problem, all the children recover.
After suffering mononucleosis, the child feels mild weakness for a year, he may suddenly have a fever without a cause. Therefore, it should be from time to time to show the doctor. For the recovery period, all vaccinations should be canceled, physical exercises and sun exposure should be limited.
The ill child develops a strong immunity, so re-infection is practically impossible.
Is it possible to protect a child from mononucleosis?
Even if your child does not attend kindergarten, then he has every chance to catch mononucleosis in school. No preventive measures will help to 100% guarantee that there will be no infection with such a virus. Vaccination against this disease is not.
The only thing that can be advised is general preventive measures, which are similar to those of acute respiratory infections. This hardening, strengthening the body, personal hygiene, ventilation of the premises, sufficient physical activity.
Now you know what lies behind the scary word "mononucleosis". Such information will help parents to choose the correct course of behavior in the event that the child has a sore throat and suspicious signs appear that will cause doubts that it is a sore throat. The first thing to do is to call a doctor, the second is not to give any antibiotics, and the third is not to doubt that your child will recover!