The human heart is boundless for love, kindness, sympathy and compassion. Today we talk about the heart as an anatomical organ, on the functioning of which our life directly depends. Recently, in medical practice, such a disease as prolapse of the mitral valve of 1 degree is often encountered. Why is it dangerous, read on.
A brief excursion into the anatomy
If you have already lost the knowledge gained in school in anatomy lessons, let's refresh them a little. The human heart on the principle of work resembles a piston. It has four departments and valves. As you know, the heart consists of two ventricles and atrial cavities. These sectors are divided among themselves by appropriate partitions - the so-called valves. They are necessary for continuous monitoring of blood circulation.
When blood exits from the ventricle, the valve septum closes and prevents its re-injection into the atrial cavity. In case of violation of its functioning, doctors diagnose mitral valve prolapse with regurgitation of 1 degree. Regurgitation refers to the process by which the valve is not tightly attached to the tissues, as a result of which the blood that has come out of the atrial cavity partially returns.
The mitral valve is located on the left side of the human heart. When prolapse, the anatomical structure of the valve walls is broken. As medical practice shows, the valves either deflect or protrude into the atrial cavity. In case of modifying the structure of the valve leaflets, specialized doctors diagnose prolapse of the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve of the 1st degree.
Why does prolapse occur?
It is the causes of the disease with such a disease that predetermine the classification of prolapse. In medical practice, there are two categories of first-degree mitral valve prolapse (MVP):
Primary disease develops on the background of genetic predisposition. As a rule, mitral valve prolapse 1 degree, having a hereditary cause, is diagnosed in children in the age range of seven to fifteen years. At risk are also people under the age of 30 years. The statistics says that the representatives of the weaker sex are twice as likely to suffer from this ailment. This is due to increased emotionality in women.
Secondary prolapse develops against the background of previously transferred pathologies, in particular:
- ischemic disease;
- thoracic injuries;
- rheumatic fever;
- heart attack;
- congestive failure;
- lupus erythematosus, etc.
As medical practice shows, congenital pathology is most common. At the same time walls of the valve bulge inside the atrial cavity. Depending on the size of the proliferation of the walls of the valve, there are three degrees of prolapse. With the first degree, the valve walls expand by about 5 mm, and with the second and third, 8 and more than 9 mm, respectively.
The clinical picture of prolapse: how to recognize the pathology?
Despite the fact that almost 2% of the pathologies of the cardiovascular system occur in 1 degree mitral valve prolapse, the symptoms of this disease cannot be considered specific. Often, specialized doctors diagnose such a disease in the process of a full examination of the patient.
The general symptoms of this disease include the following symptoms:
- pain in the left side of the sternum;
- excessive fatigue;
- predisposition to frequent diseases of cold and viral nature;
- intense sweating;
- psycho-emotional disorders.
As a rule, in a state of rest with a prolapse, the person does not experience discomfort or pain. Such a symptom results from the activity of a physical type or emotional overstrain. As for viral ailments, one of the symptoms of prolapse is that specialized experts consider frequent tonsillitis, as well as chronic tonsillitis.
As already mentioned, representatives of the beautiful half of humanity are more likely to suffer mitral valve prolapse than men. Against the background of excessive emotional excitability, they may experience various neurological disorders and nausea.
Often, prolapse can be the primary cause of the development of a vegetative-type crisis. Due to the anatomical structure of the human heart, a malfunction of the valve can be a cause of arrhythmia. Naturally, the violation of blood flow will be inextricably linked with the heart rhythm.
In medical practice, cardiologists are often called mitral valve prolapse noise syndrome. This symptom can be considered specific. This name is not considered conditional. In case of violation of the anatomical structure of the valvular septum and malfunctioning of the heart muscle, characteristic clicks and noises are heard. The intensity and specificity of these sounds may vary in accordance with the position of the human body.
How to diagnose prolapse: we rush to consult a cardiologist
As it was already repeatedly mentioned in our article, in most cases mitral valve prolapse is diagnosed by chance. Few patients pay attention to the above symptoms. But the appearance of pain in the sternum makes each of us have to postpone all matters until later and go to a cardiologist.
Specialists say that most often women are diagnosed with mitral valve prolapse of 1 degree during pregnancy. It was during this period that the representative of the weaker sex undergoes a comprehensive examination, and doctors are carefully examining the functioning of the cardiovascular system.
Ultrasound and echocardiography are considered to be one of the reliable diagnostic methods today. To determine the volume of regurgitation, additional Doppler examination is performed.
Mitral valve prolapse can be successfully treated and in most cases, doctors give comforting and most favorable prognosis.
We are heading for recovery
Cardiologists claim that the treatment of mitral valve prolapse 1 degree is always therapeutic in nature. Surgical intervention may be needed only with the development of disease 2-3 degrees and in the presence of complicated consequences. In such cases, prosthetics of this partition is performed.
As for the conservative treatment of mitral valve prolapse, the patient is prescribed pharmacological preparations of various groups, in particular:
- sedatives that allow you to normalize the psycho-emotional state and eliminate neurological disorders;
- beta-blockers: such drugs are prescribed in the presence of tachycardia or extrasystole;
- pharmacological preparations to maintain the full functioning of the heart muscle, for example, Riboxin, Magnerot or Panangin;
- drugs from the group of anticoagulants.
The last drugs are prescribed only in the presence of blood clots. I would like to pay special attention to the treatment of prolapse during gestation. As practice shows, such a disease will not harm the future baby, but the diagnosis should always be reported to the doctor.
The fact is that prolapse can cause the development of preeclampsia. And as you know, the lack of oxygen can slow down the physiological and mental development of the future crumbs. Along with the above groups of drugs, during pregnancy a woman is recommended to take vitamins, in particular, thiamine, nicotinic acid, riboflavin, etc.
In addition to pharmaceutical treatment, the patient must follow a number of rules:
- fully relax;
- balance physical exertion;
- comply with the diet.
During the treatment of prolapse, it is better for patients to abandon excessive physical exertion and professional occupation of any kind of sports. But breathing exercises and moderate physical activity are only welcomed by cardiologists.
Most often, the first degree mitral valve prolapse is considered a congenital abnormality. This disease can be successfully treated without surgery. If such a disease was identified in early childhood, the baby is constantly under the supervision of a specialized doctor. For a speedy recovery and return to normal life, you must strictly follow all the instructions of the attending specialist. Be healthy!