Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a fairly common disease, it imposes certain obligations and restrictions on the life of the patient. Compliance with the rules in the diet, the exclusion of some products can be positioned not only as prevention of the disease for people who do not have diabetes, but also as its treatment. For patients with a diagnosis of diabetes, diet is mandatory, only in this case, you can guarantee a normal state of health and control the disease.
Nutrition in diabetes: the basic principles
The principle of proper nutrition implies that the body receives all the nutrients - proteins, fats and carbohydrates, vitamins, mineral components, fiber, in certain quantities and proportions. The energy that the body receives from food should be completely consumed by it - this is the main rule for diabetes.
Recommended fractional type of food, about 5 - 6 times a day. Imposed diet restricts meat and fish broths, ideally they should be replaced by vegetable, mushroom. It is also important to exclude fried. The menu should contain cottage cheese, soy, oatmeal, which improves the condition of the liver and stimulates its functions.
For patients with diabetes mellitus, several principles of nutrition / diets have been developed, but more often, at home it is recommended to adhere to the menu of table No. 9.
What can and can not eat with diabetes?
There is a list of products that will be allowed and recommended, and there is a row of dishes that are under a categorical ban. So, the list of permitted products includes:
- Bread and bakery products. It is recommended to give their preference to dark varieties of bread, or special - diabetic. Its mass fraction should not exceed 200 - 350 g per day. But this is allowed only after consulting a doctor.
- It is permissible to use soups with the addition of vegetables on the "second" meat or fish broth. Consumption of these dishes is allowed no more than 2 times a week.
- As meat products, you can use beef, veal, lean pork, turkey, rabbit meat. Meals can be cooked by boiling, in the sleeve or steamed. Vegetables (greens, white cabbage or cauliflower, various types of lettuce, zucchini / eggplant, root vegetables), which can be served boiled, raw or baked, are suitable for garnish.
- As is known, many cereals and pasta are not recommended to be included in the menu, but this does not mean a categorical ban. Their use should be limited, while reducing the number of baked goods in the diet.
- It is permissible to use no more than 2 eggs per day, while taking into account their use in cooking. Quail eggs are considered the most dietary, but chicken eggs are not strictly prohibited.
- The diet should contain fruits and berries, as the main source of vitamins and other beneficial components. For persons with diabetes, sour-sweet fruits are recommended, with a total volume of not more than 200 g per day. They can be served as sweets, dessert, raw, used in cooking or cooking compotes with the addition of sugar substitutes (xylitol or sorbitol).
- As for the use of dairy products, they can be resolved only after consulting a doctor. Many patients are advised to include in the diet fermented milk products, such as kefir or yogurt volume not more than 0.5 liters per day. It is also permissible to use cottage cheese (50 to 200 g per day). Cottage cheese can be served in its natural form or it can be used in the preparation of more complex dishes, such as cheesecakes, puddings, etc.
- It is permissible to use non-sharp sauces - white, with the addition of roots, milk and red.
- All liquid, together with the first dishes, should be no more than 5 tbsp. per day. This may be tea, weak coffee without added sugar, vegetable and fruit juices.
- Fats can be represented with butter and vegetable oil, but not more than 40 g per day. This volume includes fats, taken in its pure form, for example for dressing salads, and used for cooking.
The list of categorically banned products is not so extensive, but can be replenished individually. These include:
- Confectionery and pastry using a large amount of butter or margarine, honey, ice cream, all sweets, etc.
- Meat fatty varieties - pork, lard, lamb. Spicy, spicy and salty foods and seasonings are prohibited.
- It is necessary to completely exclude ground pepper, allspice and mustard, including mustard oil.
- Any drinks containing alcohol are strictly prohibited!
- Of the fruit is not recommended grapes, bananas, raisins.
- Despite the spread of opinion, sugar is not strictly prohibited, its presence is allowed, but only after the approval of a leading specialist in strictly limited quantities.
The menu for diabetes isam diet, with recommendations or exclusion of certain foods, should be appointed as a leading expert who will analyze all the features of the disease. As is known, there are 2 types of diabetes mellitus: Type I - insulin-dependent, Type II - insulin-independent.
Diet for type I diabetes
In the treatment of diabetes type I, one of the leading roles is assigned to nutrition. At the same time, the diet is made strictly individually, based on the individual characteristics of the patient. This is the only way to calm down blood sugar surges and prevent possible complications. The second fundamental role in the treatment is given to the introduction of insulin.
In order to accurately calculate the required dose of funds, doctors use the special concepts of "bread unit" (XE), which is equal to 10 - 12 g of carbohydrates. Accordingly, when drawing up the menu, it will be important not so much what the patient eats, how much - in what quantity.
But at the same time, the principles of diet are forced to comply with the fundamental rules. First, a single meal should not be more than 7 - 8 XE. Secondly, the diet completely prohibits sweet drinks - sweet juices, lemonades, soda and even tea with sugar.
Observing these rules a patient with type I diabetes can eat normally, his menu will practically not differ from healthy people.
Diet for Type II Diabetes
The most important task of prescribing a diet is stabilization of carbohydrate metabolism. Compliance with the rules, daily physical therapy will increase the sensitivity of cells to insulin. By compiling the menu, gender, age, weight, health status, progression of the underlying disease and patient activity are taken into account.
Diet is aimed at eliminating extra pounds, for each patient is calculated individual rate of calories per day. Under the ban get high-calorie meals, foods that will help increase blood sugar. Composing the menu, it is necessary to make a start from those products which consist of a large amount of cellulose and water. The patient is forced to follow a diet constantly, for these reasons, the diet should be varied and contain all the necessary substances.
Supportive Diet Recipes for Diabetes
In many patients, a priori diet is a severe restriction in nutrition, the elimination of all "goodies". Many believe that it is necessary to eat only buckwheat, porridge without milk, sugar and butter. But it is not, it is quite possible to make a tasty and nutritious diet.
After waking up, you can drink tea without sugar, a small cup of coffee or a glass of unsweetened juice. You can also cook cottage cheese casserole, for example, with carrots or fruit. For a second breakfast, it is recommended to offer buckwheat porridge or wheat bran broth.
Dinner should consist of 2 dishes, it is possible to include dessert. As the first one can offer vegetarian soup, vegetable or cereal soups in vegetable broth. When cooking broth, you can add leeks, which will give it a pleasant smell and savory taste. In soups, it is useful to add a small amount of vegetable oil. For the second, you can offer baked or boiled chicken meat with a milk sauce. Fruit or fruit jelly is perfect as a dessert.
In the afternoon snack you can eat apples, preferably with sourness (Antonovka), a glass of tea without sugar.
At dinner it is useful to cook low-fat fish, fill it with lemon juice or vegetable oil, but it is worth remembering about the daily dosage of fat! The sauce for fish can be different - milk, red with the addition of herbs, etc. Before bedtime you can drink 1 tbsp. kefir.
Compliance with the rules of nutrition, thinking through the menu, the correct calculation of the "bread units" will help to create an attractive diet that will satisfy even the most fastidious patients. The main limitations that diet No. 9 implies are reducing the amount of carbohydrates, most of which can hardly be called a healthy diet.