Bruises to the head, which lead to concussion, can be obtained at home, at work, during a trip to transport. You can witness the injury of another person. How will you help yourself or the victim if you don't know the symptoms of concussion in adults? It's time to fill this gap.
To say that a concussion occurs often means to say nothing. Only in our country every year 400 thousand people get with him in traumatology. Up to 80-90% of patients with TBI get exactly this diagnosis. Among them, there are twice as many men, but the beautiful half of humanity is harder to endure concussion and more often faces consequences. About 55-65% of episodes happen in everyday life.
Since this is a dangerous condition in which first aid should be competently provided, it is helpful for everyone to know how a concussion manifests itself. Symptoms and treatment in adults have their own characteristics. If you go to a doctor in time, you can recover in a couple of weeks. Those who prefer to lie down or heal at home should know that an untreated concussion increases the possibility of sudden death by 7 times.
The earliest and delayed symptoms
Concussion of the brain (SGM) is a type of TBI, in which the vessels are not damaged. It does not provoke disturbances in the structure of the organ, its cells do not die. Virtually no damage, but they begin to perform their duties worse.
The consequences of such a traumatic injury can be very sad, so it is important to know the symptoms of a concussion in adults. The first signs of such an injury are:
- severe pulsating headache, mainly in the occipital zone;
- blanching of the skin;
- dizziness (it becomes stronger when turning the head and when moving pupils). Double eyes;
- flies before the eyes;
- uneven breathing, increased (or slowing) pulse;
- nausea that ends with single vomiting;
- general weakness;
- increased sweating;
- loss of motor coordination;
- noise in ears;
- loss of consciousness for a period of a couple of seconds to 6 hours. This is one of the main symptoms of SGM;
- pupil size. They can change their shape;
- memory loss;
- drowsiness or hyperactive behavior;
- blurred speech;
- reaction to light and loud sounds.
As for the temperature, in most cases it remains normal.
There are three degrees of severity. Each of them has its own symptoms:
- main symptoms of mild concussion in adults: the victim is conscious, but for a short time (up to 15 minutes) may remain confused, speech becomes slurred, dizziness occurs, coordination of movements is disturbed, the tone of the hands is reduced or absent, the pulse slows down or becomes more frequent. In rare cases, vomiting occurs. All symptoms usually disappear by the end of the first day;
- the average degree, in addition to the above manifestations, is characterized by memory loss and disorientation. There is intense headache, nausea and vomiting, there is a specific symptom - nystagmus (running pupils). Symptoms of concussion may last longer than 15 min. The patient may faint for a short time (up to 5 minutes);
- in severe cases, all the above signs of concussion in an adult become more pronounced. A person loses consciousness and does not come to his senses for more than 15 minutes, he has convulsions, he may fall into a coma.
In addition to primary, there may be delayed symptoms of concussion in adults after a fall. They appear weeks and even months after the incident. The victim may be worried about such health problems:
- after 1.5-2 weeks there is a squeezing headache;
- no appetite;
- pulse spikes are noted;
- often dizzy;
- decreased performance, marked fatigue;
- there is irritability, anxiety, fear;
- a person cannot concentrate, his memory is deteriorating;
- hearing and sight drop;
- fainting and epileptic seizures occur;
- violated sexual functions;
- meteorological dependence may appear.
How to help the victim?
If you think that concussion of the brain can only happen with a header, then absolutely not right. It can be obtained in a situation where the blow fell on the feet or buttocks, because the brain is placed in a liquid medium and reacts to any sudden movement that the body has made. Therefore, if symptoms characteristic of SGM are observed, then you should immediately call a doctor and provide first aid to the injured person. What is it?
If the patient has lost consciousness, he is placed on his right side, his left arm and legs are bent at an angle of 90 degrees, and his head is tilted down (to ensure unobstructed air flow and to prevent vomit from entering the respiratory tract). It is necessary to undo the buttons on the clothes and belt buckles. In place of injury should put a cold. The patient needs to create complete rest. You can bring a cotton wool moistened with liquid ammonia to the victim's nose. We must try not to let the patient fall asleep.
But the main thing - as soon as possible to deliver the person to the hospital. It is better not to do it yourself, since it is not known whether the patient has a fracture or not. If possible, you must wait for the ambulance crew, which transports it to the department.
Depending on the condition of the patient, this drug treatment may be prescribed:
- painkillers - Analgin, Pentalgin, Baralgin;
- against vomiting - Zeercal;
- from vertigo - Betaserc, Bellaspon;
- sedatives and hypnotics - Finelepsin, Phenobarbital, Motherwort, Valerian, Corvalol, Valocordin;
- in exceptional cases, tranquilizers can be used - Sibazon, Elenium, Fenazepam, Nozepam;
- vasodilators and decongestants - Trental, Caviton, Eufillin, Memaplant;
- antioxidant - Glycine, Meciprim, Mexidol;
- to improve overall well-being - Pantogam, Vitrum;
- if the patient is in serious condition, electrolyte drip may be prescribed.
After the end of treatment, a neurologist must be observed for a year to prevent complications.
Rules of conduct after a closed head injury
When you shake any severity (including light), be sure to see a doctor. The first 2-3 days should strictly abide by bed rest. Ideally, an adult is shown peace for 2-3 weeks. It is necessary to reduce the load on the brain, not sit at the computer, refuse to watch TV shows, read, you can not play on your mobile phone and communicate for a long time. In the room where the victim is, it is better to remove bright lighting.
To prevent swelling of the brain, doctors recommend drinking less. There is no special diet, but it is better to have nuts, citrus fruits, bananas, dairy products in the diet. It’s good to postpone household chores for two weeks, remove physical exertion and not drive a car.
In case of any head injury, do not hesitate to contact the doctors. It is wiser to be safe than to clear up the consequences of neglect of your health. If, after any excess in adults, there are at least some symptoms of concussion, then you should not even try to treat yourself - it only hurts your health.