When the pressure drops below 100/60 mm Hg. Art. in women and less than 110/70 mm Hg. Art. in men, there is reason to talk about asymptomatic hypotension. Low pressure and high pulse - how dangerous is this condition for a person? What are its causes, and what to do about it?
Low pressure, high pulse - what does this mean?
High blood pressure is the force exerted by blood on the walls of the arteries. Hypotension or hypotension is characterized by abnormally low blood pressure. Low pressure can be a constant or incoming phenomenon, repeating from time to time or often.
People of any age may have symptoms of hypotension. Yet those over 65 suffer the most. Bedridden patients and pregnant women are also more susceptible to asymptomatic hypotension. In 20% of cases, this phenomenon occurs regularly and can have several causes. That is why it is very important to consult a doctor to find the true cause.
Compared with high blood pressure, low blood pressure does not affect heart activity and does not pose any health risk. There are two types of hypotension:
Symptoms resulting from low blood pressure cause discomfort, but do not carry a mortal danger to the patient. However, the occurrence of hazardous situations is possible with hypotension, especially in the case of circulatory collapse due to a sharp drop in pressure. The main symptoms of the disease include:
- blurred vision, glare or "darkening" in the eyes;
- noise in the ears;
- clouding or loss of consciousness;
- rapid pulse, tachycardia;
- chills, excessive sweating;
- fatigue, apathy, impaired concentration;
- in persons prone to low blood pressure, as a rule, cold hands and feet;
In normal mode, the heart beats in a calm state from 60 to 80 times per minute. When the pulse exceeds 100 beats per minute, it is called tachycardia. In the case of pathologically low pressure, the heart beats faster to compensate for its fall and return to normal.
What causes hypotension?
The most common form of hypotension is orthostatic hypotension. It is assumed that the tendency to lower blood pressure is hereditary. The risk groups for this form of hypotension are:
- young and thin women;
- women with digestive disorders;
- pregnant women;
- elderly people with low body mass.
Postprandial hypotension is the result of another disease. Causes of low pressure and high pulse in this case include:
- heart diseases such as heart failure, arrhythmia;
- metabolic disorders, thyroid, pituitary, or adrenal cortex;
- diseases of the nervous system, since the regulation of blood pressure is directly dependent on its functioning;
- dehydration due to blood loss, diarrhea, or lack of fluid;
- prolonged illness with immobilized condition.
Risk factors for disease:
- alcohol abuse: it dilates blood vessels and increases urination, which causes dehydration and lowers blood pressure;
- the effect of alcohol is enhanced by addiction to smoking marijuana and can lead to significant and prolonged hypotension;
- many drugs can lead to hypotension, including hypotensive, diuretic, antipsychotics, hypnotics, antidepressants.
What to do if the pressure drops often?
Low blood pressure, which does not cause acute symptoms or has short attacks with infrequent dizziness on rising, usually does not require treatment. The goal of therapy is to stimulate blood circulation and the outflow of a large volume of blood accumulated in the lower limbs.
The following general measures will help with hypotension:
- cold and hot shower;
- regular physical activity: cycling, health path, tourism, physical education, swimming in the pool;
- reducing the effects of stress and nervous tension;
- balanced diet with high salt content;
- an increase in fluid consumption up to 2-3 liters per day: these may be sodium mineral waters, fresh juices from fruits and vegetables;
- refusal to drink alcohol and smoking.
It is important to know that strong tea and coffee drinks stimulate blood flow and increase blood pressure, but for a short time. In addition, they contribute to dehydration.
What emergency measures should be taken when the patient has circulating signs of collapse - dizziness, tinnitus, cold sweat? First of all, lay it on your back, lift your legs at an angle of 45 °, you can attach wet wipes to your forehead or on your neck.
If general measures are not enough, depending on the type of hypotension, drug treatment can be applied:
- steroidal agents that reduce the excretion of water and salt by the kidneys and thereby increase the volume of blood and, consequently, increase the pressure;
- ergotamine derivatives, in particular ergot alkaloids, for narrowing large veins: their action is directed against circulatory disorders due to orthostatic hypotension.
Low pulse, bradycardia on the background of high pressure is a serious problem that poses a great threat not only to health, but also to life. What to take to alleviate the condition, should appoint only a doctor. At the first signs of too high pressure, it is necessary to lay down the patient, apply mustard plaster to the calf muscles, provide fresh air and call an ambulance. In conclusion, I would like to remind everyone a well-known truth: human health is in his hands. Take care of yourself!