In general, an indicator of the level of iron-containing protein deserves special attention. Many of those who have undergone such a study are faced with the problem of low hemoglobin, but do not fully represent the reasons for its deviation from the norm and the possible consequences of this. What threatens a similar deficit and how to fill it?
Why do we need hemoglobin and check its level?
A complex blood protein - hemoglobin - is responsible for gas exchange (oxygen and carbon dioxide) in the tissues of the body, being a link between them and the respiratory system, ensures the stability of metabolic processes.
In order for all systems to function properly, the amount of this substance must be within the permissible limits for the fluctuation of the norm. If the level of hemoglobin decreases, it provokes iron deficiency - anemia, which, in turn, leads to metabolic disorders, the development of pathologies and various diseases. Therefore, it is important to detect abnormalities in time and consult a doctor for recommendations on the treatment and correction of hemoglobin levels in the blood.
What is dangerous and why anemia?
There are two types of causes of low hemoglobin - physiological and pathological. The consequences of both in advanced cases may require long-term treatment.
The first type can be observed in pregnant women. Such anemia develops due to the fact that blood is diluted by plasma, and the volume of its circulation increases. In the normal course of pregnancy, iron-containing protein should meet the norm - 110 g / l. Reduction is allowed only from the 20th week and not more than 40 units.
Causes of abnormal hemoglobin reduction
Abnormal iron-containing protein in blood cells may be caused by:
- large blood loss due to injuries or operations;
- microbleeds in the intestine, uterus, gums;
- plasma transfusions;
- postponed jaundice;
- congenital abnormalities (iron deficiency);
- hemolysis, that is, the destruction of red blood cells;
- vitamin B deficiency;
- unbalanced nutrition;
- gastrointestinal diseases that lead to poor digestibility of nutrients;
- blood diseases;
- development of oncological tumors;
- oppression of bone marrow due to its damage;
- low motor activity (for people who spend days on end at the computer, it can be a major factor in the development of anemia);
- prolonged stay in confined spaces (which may be associated with professional activities, for example, work in workshops with poor ventilation).
Lowering the level of this important element of blood at first can occur completely unnoticed. But over time, a person begins to notice that:
- integuments turn pale;
- the tongue becomes bright red;
- hair became brittle;
- nail plates exfoliate;
- frequent viral and infectious diseases;
- it's hard for him to concentrate.
The consequences of a lack of iron protein
The problems associated with anemia gradually become very serious and can lead to:
- weakening of immunity;
- heart failure or left ventricular hypertrophy of the heart (this is a very serious fatal defect in particularly advanced cases);
- enlarged liver;
- all sorts of lesions of the nervous system;
- a twofold increase in the risk of catching a viral disease (this is almost a 100% guarantee during an epidemic);
- increased fatigue;
- pathological muscle relaxation;
- violation of taste and olfactory reception;
In order to prevent undesirable consequences and increase low hemoglobin, it is necessary to reliably know also the specific causes of deviations in different categories of patients.
Low hemoglobin in women and men: causes and effects
Iron-containing protein norm in a non-pregnant woman is 130-160 g / l. The "ladies" reasons for the decline of this indicator include:
- anemia provoked by abortion, childbirth, varicose veins;
- heavy bleeding during menstruation;
- exhausting unbalanced diets, which are often resorted to by the beautiful half of humanity.
The effects of anemia in women can also be expressed in:
- depressed state;
- increased irritability.
The hemoglobin level in men is slightly higher than in women - 130-170 g / l. This is due to more intense physical exertion, requiring more oxygen, which is carried to the cells by hemoglobin. In representatives of the stronger sex, a decrease in the amount of iron-containing protein in blood cells is caused by the following factors characteristic of them:
- blood loss as a result of injuries (such men are much more susceptible than women);
- personnel donation (representatives of some professions are required to regularly donate blood at transfusion stations).
Anemia in men, among other things, can lead to:
- reduced potency;
- deterioration of sperm quality.
Why does hemoglobin in children fall?
The rate of this important blood component in children of different ages has some differences. So for babies from 1 to 5, this indicator ranges from 100 to 140 g / l, from 6 to 12 - 115-145 g / l, from 12 to 15 years for girls - 112-152 g / l, for boys - 120- 160 g / l, from 16 to 18 years for girls - 115-153 g / l, and for boys - 117-160 g / l.
In children under one year, as a rule, the deviation from the norm is associated with the lack of essential nutrients in the diet of a nursing mother.
In children from 1 year to 5 years, low hemoglobin may be associated with:
- unhealthy diet;
- early weaning;
- too fast or, on the contrary, prolonged cutting of the umbilical cord;
- violation of the decomposition of red blood cells;
- hemolytic disease (incompatibility of the blood of the mother and the fetus due to the Rh factor).
In preschoolers and schoolchildren, a decrease in iron-containing protein in the blood is caused by:
- unbalanced diet (about 5% of iron is excreted from the body with feces, respectively, 5% should also be restored with food);
- puberty (in particular, the onset of menstrual blood loss in girls);
- frequent nosebleeds.
If the child’s anemia is not corrected in time, it can lead to:
- mental and mental retardation;
- heart disease;
- pathologies of the respiratory system;
- disorders of the nervous system;
- intense dizziness.
How to increase the level of iron protein?
In order to increase the level of hemoglobin, it is necessary to conduct a thorough diagnosis and identify the causes of its decline. But, even directing efforts to eliminate the root cause, you still need to parallel the lack of iron. For this correctional therapy goes in the following directions:
- medication (as a rule, it is quite a long course of treatment);
- the use of products containing iron and folic acid (with an emphasis on beef, calf liver, legumes, dogrose, etc.);
- observance of the daily routine (with a mandatory 8-hour, and for children - a 10-hour sleep and walks in the fresh air for at least 2 hours daily).
Pregnant and lactating women also need to be attentive to the results of blood tests, as any abnormalities in the mother’s body cause harm to the child.
Causes of low hemoglobin in both adults and children can have very serious consequences. Therefore, it is important to start treatment on time. But for this you should regularly take a complete blood count to make timely adjustments. This is especially true of children in whom a decrease in the level of iron-containing protein can lead to irreparable disruption of the brain.