Breathing is an unconditioned reflex that few people pay attention to. But as soon as the problems begin with it, there is a feeling of lack of air, most patients develop panic states. Practically every one of us knows this feeling, which doctors call dyspnea (shortness of breath), for example, when running fast, climbing stairs. But it happens when the feeling of lack of air occurs when walking for short distances or even at rest. In this case, we can talk about serious pathology, it is mandatory to consult a specialist.
Types of dyspnea and its important characteristics
Only one description of the situation when shortness of breath occurred, doctors, may suggest certain diseases. So, in clinical practice, there are 3 types of dyspnea:
Inspiratory dyspnea, in which breathing is difficult. The occurrence of such shortness of breath is more typical for patients with heart pathologies, panic attacks, hyperventilation syndrome, etc.
Expiratory dyspnea is characterized by a difficult exhalation, characteristic of persons with bronchial asthma, etc.
Mixed dyspnea is characterized by difficult breathing, when both inhalation and exhalation are difficult. And the list of diseases for which this symptom is quite wide.
Successful treatment of air shortages will directly depend on the relief of the underlying disease. First of all, it will be necessary to find out the cause of dyspnea, and only after starting treatment. In the arsenal of physicians there is a huge number of tablet preparations (for heart diseases, asthma, etc.), various methods can be used, such as oxygen therapy, psychological training, etc.
Lack of air: the main reasons
Talk about the causes of shortness of breath can be a lot and for a long time, but still, most often the lack of air will be associated with the following reasons.
- Poor physical fitness. This can be said to be a normal phenomenon, and not a cause for serious concern. But still worth thinking. In trained and physically active individuals, shortness of breath occurs less frequently, and if today it appears when you are raised to the 6th floor, then soon, patients may begin to suffocate already on the 3rd floor. The manifestation of such shortness of breath is not dangerous, and will rather talk about the need to take care of yourself.
- Anemia. Symptoms of lack of air most often occur with iron deficiency anemia, because iron ions saturate the blood with oxygen and play a very important role in the processes of blood formation and oxygen transfer to the tissues. As soon as the amount of normal iron in the blood decreases, hypoxia forms and a protective mechanism turns on - shortness of breath. Patients begin to breathe vigorously and deeply. Iron deficiency anemia is most common in women, but in men it is difficult to call such a pathology a rarity. To make an accurate diagnosis, doctors rely on a comprehensive blood test.
- Obesity. Obesity is a disease, not a mere lack of physical fitness. The danger is the external fat deposits on the abdomen, buttocks and thighs, namely the internal reserves of energy. A layer of adipose tissue envelops the lungs, the heart, not allowing the body to fully perform its functions, and, therefore, the organs receive less oxygen.
- Lung disease. Dyspnea, which is formed in diseases of the respiratory tract, may be inspiratory, when bronchi are clogged with mucus, or it is a tumor process, and expiratory - in bronchial asthma. Doctors will first of all find out the cause of dyspnea with the help of some types of research - radiography, laboratory blood analysis, spirography, and other methods of examination - MRI, CT, bronchoscopy, etc. can be used.
- Ischemic disease and other heart diseases. With ischemia of the heart, shortness of breath is the same typical symptom as pain in the left side of the chest. With congestive heart failure, the patient is in a forced position. A lack of air begins to manifest as soon as the patient is lying down on a low pillow. It is easy to arrest the condition - it is enough to take a sitting position. Dyspnea is formed due to increased blood flow to the heart in the supine position and overflow of the heart chambers.
- In cardiac asthma, dyspnea does not stop in any position of the patient and most often manifests itself precisely at night. Cardiac asthma is a life-threatening condition, and if it occurs, you should immediately call an ambulance.
- Pulmonary embolism. One of the most common causes of shortness of breath is deep vein thrombophlebitis. At the same time, the patient does not have varicose veins - which significantly complicates the diagnosis. The first episodes of the disease are easy, the limb just swells, pains appear like sprains, and convulsions can form. Gradually, blood clots begin to form in the veins that can migrate to the pulmonary artery and block its lumen. Symptoms of pulmonary thromboembolism are the sudden onset of shortness of breath, stitching pains in the chest and an agonizing cough.
The listed reasons, by no means all, some of them require more detailed consideration.
Shortage of air with cervical osteochondrosis: features
The causes of the formation of osteochondrosis of the cervical spine are quite a few, and, unfortunately, almost 80% of the population experience them daily. The first is a sedentary, sedentary lifestyle, the presence of excess weight. Improper metabolism, various domestic traumas, the formation of scoliosis and postural disorders in childhood can have their effect. The hereditary factor can also not be ignored.
Symptoms of osteochondrosis can be pain, which is localized in the neck, shoulder girdle, etc. In addition, when osteochondrosis can be a lack of oxygen, this can be explained by the lesion of the upper spine, with irritation of the phrenic nerve, and therefore, shortness of breath, breathing it becomes difficult. During sleep, patients snore heavily, with an uncomfortable position of the body and even stronger pinching of the nerves.
Gradually developing, osteochondrosis can cause a decrease in visual acuity, the appearance of tinnitus, the formation of hypertension, etc. The problem requires a comprehensive approach to treatment. The most commonly prescribed symbiosis is drug-tablet treatment, manual therapy. Surgical interventions are prescribed only in the case when conservative treatment remains ineffective.
How does the lack of air manifest during neurosis?
Great anxiety and anxiety, fear contributes to the development of adrenaline. Being transported into the blood, adrenaline causes the body to pass large amounts of air through the lungs - hyperventilation. For these reasons, with a high voltage, the heart rate increases and shortness of breath appears. This type of dyspnea is safe for the body, but in the event of a serious panic attack, it is still necessary to consult a specialist.
The lack of air is often manifested as one of the symptoms of psychogenic disorders. Against the background of bad mood, fear and anxiety, such symptoms can only intensify, the patients' complete confidence in serious pathology of the lungs or heart adds fuel to the fire, which only aggravates shortness of breath.
Hyperventilation syndrome: causes, symptoms, treatment
Hyperventilation syndrome is a vegetative disorder, it is not associated with disruption of the respiratory tract. The whole essence of the problem lies in the pathology of the autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system controls vital processes that are not subject to consciousness, such as breathing. In addition to automatic control of breathing, it is possible to control the number and depth of breaths. It is the combined respiratory management system that is the basis for the development of the hyperventilation syndrome.
The modern world is full of stress only increases the symptoms of shortness of breath. And today, doctors believe hyperventilation syndrome is one of the symptoms of a panic attack. Especially brightly this kind of shortness of breath can be observed in people with fear of confined spaces - claustrophobia.
Accordingly, the treatment of hyperventilation syndrome will be handled by neurologists and psychotherapists. And if the problem is ignored, the attacks of lack of air will occur more often. In the future, the patient may develop an obsessive state - the fear of provoking a situation in which there will be a breathing disorder.
Symptoms of hyperventilation syndrome can be shortness of breath and asthma attacks that occur on the background of stress, or on the background of rest. It may also bother a dry, paroxysmal cough, which begins to manifest itself during extreme physical exertion. Also, the patient may be disturbed by obsessive yawning and breaths that do not bring relief, and the feeling of lack of air does not pass.
Treatment of the syndrome can be carried out both with drugs and with the help of psychological methods. I can take courses of sedatives, in some cases psychotropic drugs can be prescribed.
Dyspnea can be formed for many reasons, some of which require the immediate consultation of a specialist and the start of treatment, while others only lifestyle changes. Many conditions and causes of dyspnea can be prevented and rather easily stopped at the present level of medical development. But the main task of the patient in time to pay attention to these symptoms.