In the 21st century, laboratory analysis of urine is just as relevant as before. Thanks to him, doctors manage to diagnose and prevent the development of many diseases in time. It is quite accurate, although sometimes its performance may vary. For example, ketone bodies in the urine are particularly variable.
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Ketone bodies, acetone or ketones - a group of substances that form in the liver due to a deficiency of carbohydrates and the synthesis of glucose from its own fat cells. The mere presence of ketone bodies in the urine indicates the development of any abnormalities in the body, in particular, problems with the gastrointestinal tract, infections and so on. To identify such deviations helps general laboratory research. But first things first.
So, the doctor strongly advised you to pass urine for analysis to determine the ketone bodies. Where to start? Let's understand:
- First of all, you need to find the right capacity, preferably plastic and clean. That is not available? It does not matter - the usual glass jar will do.
- Now we prepare our body for the analysis in advance. We follow the recommended diet, that is, completely discard pickles, smoked foods and other not very healthy foods.
- Then in the morning we collect the urine in the tank and run it to the laboratory. It is the first portion of biological material, as a rule, is especially interesting to the doctor.
After you have performed all the procedures, it remains only to wait for the results of the analysis from the laboratory. Usually, the answer is ready for the next day, and you can admire your health in numbers. And what these indicators mean - the question is completely different and, in truth, quite complicated even for the diagnostician himself.
The norm of ketone bodies in urine is a controversial topic. Some experts believe that they should not be there at all. Others claim that the rate indicator is 20-50 mg / day. That is how much a healthy human body can produce. But any deviation from the specified framework is considered a pathology and most often indicates the presence of a particular disease.
Ketonuria, where are you from?
In normal metabolism, the cells of the body are saturated with glucose, which comes with carbohydrates from food and is supplemented with glycogen living in the liver. And when there is not enough glucose, the body experiences “sugar starvation” and begins to look for additional nourishment within itself. It is this kind of eating your own self from within and becomes the main cause of the appearance of ketone bodies in the urine. But various external factors can provoke this:
- stage of exacerbation of diabetes;
- low carbohydrate diet, starvation, excessive consumption of protein foods;
- inflammatory processes in the digestive tract;
- spinal cord disease - leukemia, leukemia;
- cirrhosis of the liver from prolonged use of alcohol;
- disorders of the thyroid gland and adrenal glands;
- acute respiratory viral disease.
It is also worth knowing that acetone bodies in the urine can appear as a result of severe physical overwork or sudden hypothermia of the body. The least frequent deviation from the norm indicates the intoxication of the body with heavy metals and poisons.
Ketone bodies in urine, found in a child, are often the first signal that a baby is undernourished or, on the contrary, eats too many foods prohibited for the child’s body. In newborns, they are witnesses of metabolic disorders. As a rule, parents can determine this themselves by a strong acetone breath and a terrible vomiting after feeding.
What should the analysis show during pregnancy?
The rate of ketone bodies in the urine during pregnancy is their complete absence. And any deviations, if any, the analysis will show only in the second trimester, when the body has become accustomed to the fetus, but has not fully adapted to all other changes. In this case, the doctors advise you to look at the root cause in your diet. For example, if the future mom mainly prefers protein foods, then the body begins to experience a lack of glucose.
It should also not forget about previously diagnosed diseases. So, if a woman before conception suffered from diabetes, then ketone bodies from urine after attaching the yellow body to the walls of the uterus will not disappear, and their level will only increase. However, there is one exception to the rule - if during pregnancy a doctor diagnosed gestational diabetes, then the level of acetone after birth will return to normal.
Among the main reasons, it is also worth considering the serious burden on the woman’s liver during this period. Hormonal failure, stressful situations on an ongoing basis, reduced immunity, acute toxicosis - all this only complicates the work of the liver. By the way, even by themselves, such conditions require constant medical supervision, since their consequences can later be very deplorable.
Memo to the patient:
- If, as a result of laboratory tests, ketone bodies were found in your urine, in addition to determining the cause of their appearance, you must stock up with special rapid tests at the pharmacy. This kit will allow at home to constantly monitor their level and independently regulate their diet.
- It is very important that the urine submitted for analysis is fresh (up to 4 hours) and morning collection.
- Overweight people are at risk for ketonuria. In order to maximally protect themselves from the onset of acetone crisis, doctors recommend such people to periodically arrange “hungry days”.
- Elevated levels of acetone in the urine of a child require particularly careful attention from doctors and parents. First of all, when the first complaints of severe abdominal pain, vomiting and nausea, as well as the appearance of a clear smell of acetone from the mouth, mom and dad must take the baby to the clinic or call an ambulance.
- When diagnosing ketonuria in a diabetic patient should contact your doctor and ask him to adjust the dosage of insulin preparations.
- To clean the intestines from toxins and slags, as well as to remove ketones from the urine, doctors recommend taking Smecta, Enterosgel, Phosphalugel.
Remember that the presence of ketone bodies in the urine is already a sign of deviation, and exceeding the norm is a serious signal to action. Do not delay with referring to a specialist, it is better to undergo a diagnosis and start treatment.