Children under one year should be examined monthly by a pediatrician and three times a year by all specialists. According to the conclusion of children's neurologists, about 20% of children of this age suffer from an increase in pressure inside the skull. Is such a frightening parents diagnosis dangerous? It all depends on what causes pressure fluctuations.
What is the pressure inside the skull?
Intracranial pressure is an imbalance in the amount of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in one or another part of the skull due to failures in its circulation. The human brain is washed by the liquor, which is produced by the venous plexuses and absorbed into the blood. Without cerebrospinal fluid, the brain lobes will not function properly, as it:
- transports to the brain the substances for which it has a need (hormones, oxygen,
- biologically active components and others.);
- eliminates the metabolic products of neurons;
- provides the excitability of nerve cells;
- protects the brain from mechanical damage.
During the day, the amount of liquor liquor varies depending on the general condition of the body. The result is pressure failures. Thus, the "failures" of intracranial pressure is not a pathology, but an indicator of certain health problems.
Why does intracranial pressure increase in young children?
Intracranial pressure in a child can often change due to certain reasons:
- hypoxia in the period of being in the womb - as a result of the rapid aging of the placenta, toxicosis,
- umbilical cord strangulation, obstructed labor and other factors;
- hydrocephalus (absorption of cerebrospinal fluid occurs slowly, an excess of fluid presses on the brain lobes, because of which they expand);
- encephalitis or meningitis (infection of the child’s body could occur
- in utero, especially when the mother is sick with herpes);
- brain lobe tumors;
- disturbances in metabolic processes.
As a rule, intracranial pressure in the smallest in case of any violations increases. The decrease causes a disturbance of brain activity and a decrease in mental abilities that cannot be diagnosed in infants.
We study the symptoms
As already noted, intracranial pressure in infants during the day is unstable. However, there are a number of symptoms, a complex or frequent repetition of which should alert the mother and make him turn to a pediatric neurologist:
- swelling fontanel;
- disproportionately large frontal bone;
- visible sclera - a strip between the upper eyelid and iris;
- moving apart the seams of the bones of the skull;
- intense head growth;
- Grefe's symptom (visual impairment associated with strabismus or permanent abduction
- bulging eyeballs down);
- increased muscle tone;
- trembling of the limbs and chin;
- sleep disturbance;
- frequent regurgitation, poor appetite.
Some symptoms are characteristic only for babies. For example, the swelling of the fontanel or the divergence of the bones of the skull. These signs of the formation of excess CSF lead to the fact that the venous mesh of the head bulges and becomes visible to the naked eye.
Any of these signs of intracranial pressure, in turn, is also a symptom of a number of other diseases. Therefore, for an objective diagnosis, a medical consultation is required.
To verify or refute the suspicion of increased intracranial pressure in infants, a number of diagnostic measures should be taken:
- Make an ultrasound. Ultrasonic waves pass through a fontanel and help assess the size of brain lobes, eliminating or confirming the diagnosis of hydrocephalus.
- Get MRI data. This is a rather complicated diagnostic method for children, since for the procedure the child must be given anesthesia so that the baby does not move during the procedure.
- Visit an ophthalmologist. Assessing the condition of the fundus - the presence or absence of edema, the expansion of the venous network - the doctor will be able to speak with greater certainty about the diagnosis.
- Consult with a neurologist. The doctor should assess the volume of the head, the state of the fontanelle and muscle tone.
- Puncture in the case when certain signs indicate the presence of a tumor.
- Only a comprehensive examination of the child can help diagnose high blood pressure correctly and start treatment on time.
What measures are being taken to stabilize intracranial pressure in infants?
If the baby suffers from increased intracranial pressure, after establishing the causes of imbalance, he is prescribed treatment:
- operative intervention (if there are interferences for removing liquor);
- drugs that reduce pressure (asparkam, triamur, diakarb);
- vitamins (improve the flow and flow of blood in the brain);
- physiotherapy (usually water treatments).
Combined therapy and competent adherence to all recommendations will allow the little one to completely get rid of the problem of elevated CSF pressure and fully develop.
Learn how to reduce the pressure at home and the causes of high lower pressure.
Complications in case of refusal of treatment
Baby's health is completely dependent on his parents. If they ignore the treatment of the increased intracranial pressure of their offspring in infancy, then in the future they are at risk of facing:
- development inhibition - all its aspects;
- psychomotor and emotional disorders;
- persistent headaches.
If it is not associated with a systemic disease, then leaps can be stabilized by preventive measures. Basic techniques for prevention:
- frequent walks;
- compliance with the established regimen of the day;
- close emotional contact with the child;
Thus, you should not worry if the intracranial pressure in infants periodically jumps. This may be due to some external factors, such as weather changes. The main thing is to remember that raising itself is not terrible and is easily eliminated. But if it is a symptom of a serious illness, it may require an urgent removal of the root cause and treatment.