Intestinal obstruction


Digested food passes through the entire intestine before leaving the body. This process is ongoing. However, obstruction, which appeared in the large or small intestine, can disrupt it. Thus, partial or complete blockage prevents the passage of fluid, as well as digested food. Consider intestinal obstruction: symptoms and treatment of pathology.

Intestinal Obstruction: Causes

Intestinal Obstruction: Symptoms and Treatment

In all mammals of our world, intestinal obstruction may appear, whether it is a person, a dog, or any other member of this class, and the symptoms and possible treatment will depend on the reasons leading to the development of pathology.

In the human body, intestinal obstruction leads to the fact that food, fluid, gases and gastric secretions stagnate behind the site of obstruction. When the critical pressure on the intestinal wall is reached, a rupture of the intestine and the release of this mass into the cavity with the abdominal organs can occur.

There are many causes of intestinal obstruction. Often her therapy is difficult and can not do without surgical intervention. Therefore, the crucial role played by the diagnosis in the early stages and, of course, timely treatment. If the intestinal obstruction is not treated, it can be fatal.

Such a pathological condition can be either the result of blocking a part of the intestine with something — a mechanical obstruction, or the result of a disruption in its normal operation — paralytic obstruction. Medical science speaks about the influence of many factors leading to the emergence of such pathology. Here are some of them:

  • strangulated hernia;
  • inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn's disease;
  • adhesions or scars after surgery in the abdominal cavity;
  • colon cancer;
  • severe constipation due to Parkinson's disease;
  • stones in the gall bladder;
  • bloat, knot formation, intestinal impairment;
  • introduction of one part of the intestine into another
  • the overlap of the lumen, which became the result of foreign objects;
  • helminth infestations;
  • tumors, scars appearing on the inner surface of the intestinal wall;
  • cysts, tumors from the outside of the intestine;
  • paralytic or spastic obstruction.

Intestinal obstruction: symptoms

Intestinal obstruction: symptoms

Let us examine the main symptoms of intestinal obstruction, which are associated with subsequent treatment. Such a pathological condition has a wide range of symptoms:

  • severe abdominal distension and asymmetry;
  • loss of appetite;
  • abdominal pain syndromes;
  • vomiting reflex;
  • constipation;
  • gas formation;
  • diarrhea.

Some symptoms are directly related to the location of the intestinal obstruction. So, vomiting is the first sign of obstruction of the small intestine. A rise in body temperature appears in case of violation of its integrity. In addition to the main symptoms, there are many specific signs of pathology, depending on the cause of the obstruction.

Therapy methods

Intestinal obstruction requires emergency medical care, which often consists of surgical intervention. About any methods of treating symptoms of intestinal obstruction in the home with the use of folk remedies should not be considered. Their use is possible in the subsequent therapy and only as prescribed by the doctor.

Preceding the diagnosis and prescription of treatment will be the determination of the functional type of obstruction. So, it is dynamic and mechanical. In the case of the statement or assumption of the diagnosis of acute mechanical obstruction of the patient immediately make out in the hospital surgical department.

With the development of peritonitis after a short preparation, surgical intervention is carried out. In other cases or in case of incomplete confirmation of the diagnosis, an examination is carried out and conservative treatment is prescribed:

  • drugs to reduce pain;
  • measures to eliminate intoxication;
  • the fight against hyperperstaltic;
  • restoration of the internal environment;
  • removal of stagnant contents and gases;
  • staging enemas.

Criteria for the effectiveness of conservative treatment will serve:

  • elimination of pain;
  • stopping gag reflex and nausea;
  • termination of abdominal distention and debugging processes of proper release of gases and feces;
  • Observation of the apparent advance of contrast with the use of barium in the small intestine and its appearance in the colon after a certain time;
  • elimination of stool stagnation associated with enema treatment.

Prescription medications are not able to remove the barrier itself, but they are prescribed to obtain a concomitant positive effect and may include:

Symptoms and treatment of intestinal obstruction

  • use of antibiotics to fight infections;
  • antiemetic drugs;
  • painkillers.

The following instrumental methods are used as diagnostic measures:

  • x-ray of the abdominal cavity;
  • Ultrasound.

In the absence of effective results of conservative therapy, surgical treatment is recommended.

Partial obstruction

In case of incomplete closure of the intestinal lumen, a partial obstruction occurs, which has its own symptoms and also requires immediate treatment. The most frequent cause of such obstruction are adhesions, as well as neoplasms. Patients experience pain in the abdomen due to delays in bowel movements, increased gas formation, and sometimes vomiting.

Fecal masses are liquid and abundant in nature and are distinguished by a putrid odor. Chronic pathology can become acute. In the absence of signs of acute obstruction, the treatment is conservative. And if the therapy does not work, the pain resumes, an emergency operation is shown followed by intensive treatment.

Such a serious disease as intestinal obstruction appears in infancy and in old age. Pathology has specific symptoms and a special approach to treatment. You should know that if you suspect an acute course of the disease, it is forbidden to eat food and drinks, including water, before the surgeon examines it. You can not also take laxatives and painkillers, put an enema, flush the stomach. Symptoms should not be ignored, and self-medication attempts are mandatory. Health to you!