Intervertebral disc protrusion. the causes of the formation


The human spine has a segmental structure, so that it can perform complex and important functions to provide support for the body and its mobility. In many ways, these functions are carried out at the expense of intervertebral discs, which are located between each pair of vertebrae and account for the honor of the entire spinal column. Over time, intervertebral disc tissues undergo degenerative changes, which gradually destroy them and lead to diseases.

The causes of the formation of protrusions and their types

The causes of the disease are varied and numerous. Experts consider the protrusion of a polietiologic pathology that occurs when several factors are combined. Allocate the main predisposing:

  1. Hereditary predisposition to protrusions and herniated intervertebral discs
  2. Spinal injuries suffered in the past
  3. Excessive physical exertion in everyday life and sports (especially basketball players, figure skaters and volleyball players are subject to protrusions)
  4. Violations of posture of various types

The severity of these factors determines the age at which the first changes in the spine and clinical manifestations in the form of pain and movement disorders begin to occur.

Protrusion is a protrusion of the intervertebral disc for a vertebral level of no more than 3 mm. If the protrusion becomes large in size from 3 mm or more, it is already called a hernia.

Intervertebral disc protrusion

There are the following types of protrusions:

  • Central protrusions are located in the midline anterior to the vertebrae.
  • Rear also directed along the center line, but towards the back
  • Left side are on the left side of the vertebrae
  • Right side is found on the side of the vertebra on the right
  • Foraminar formations are located near the exit holes of the intervertebral nerves. Median protrusions are directed from the center to the peripheral part of the disc.
  • Posterior median protrusions are a kind of median, but directed only backwards.
  • Near the middle is located near the middle
  • Circular disc protrusion - damage to the entire surface of the disc
  • Diffuse protrusions are multiple protrusions that can be located both on the same level and on different

Intervertebral disc protrusion: treatment

Treatment in the acute stage is somewhat different from therapy in the period of remission. When exacerbating the disease, a person needs rest and taking anti-inflammatory drugs. Non-steroidal drugs for inflammation are usually prescribed a long course. Major introduce this group of medicines: "Voltaren", "Indomethacin", "Ibuprofen", "Piroxicam". To relieve pain, pain relievers and drugs are used that can relax the muscles. In case of strong edema, anti-edema therapy is also indicated, diuretic medications such as "Furosemide" and "Hypothiazide" are prescribed. Many specialists prescribe vitamins of group B for patients in large doses.

Drug treatment is aimed at the main links of the pathogenesis of the disease, it removes puffiness, reduces inflammation and allows you to relax tense muscles, as well as eliminate their reflex contraction. If the pain is very strong, apply radicular blockade and the introduction of painkillers such as lidocaine and dexamethasone.

To reduce the protrusion of the discs, spinal traction is sometimes prescribed. If the affected discs are located in the cervical region, it is advisable to immobilize the spinal column with a special collar or other devices. Treatment of protrusions of the lumbar spine may include wearing a special corset for a long time.

Effectively applied methods of physiotherapy, which relax, relieve pain and reduce inflammation. Physiotherapy can also enhance the effect of medications. Procedures are prescribed in combination with the use of drugs that have a relaxing effect on the muscles and help to improve blood supply in the spine, which speeds up the processes of tissue repair. The use of physiotherapy and medication in combination allows you to get a faster positive effect and prevent complications and the transition of the disease to the severe stage.

During treatment, it is important to follow a diet that does not require strict restrictions. When protrusions of discs and intervertebral hernias, the ingestion of a sufficient amount of nutrients, vitamins and minerals is necessary. Eat more fresh raw fruits and berries, nuts and vegetable dishes. Very useful fish and a variety of seafood, seaweed. From dairy products should eat yogurt, kefir, cottage cheese and milk.

Intervertebral disc protrusion

Manual therapy is widely used to treat diseases of the musculoskeletal system; protrusion of intervertebral discs is no exception. But this method can not be applied to everyone, there are certain limitations. Contraindications to manual therapy may be as follows:

  1. Acute illness
  2. The presence of fresh injuries
  3. High blood pressure
  4. Oncological diseases
  5. The presence of inflammatory diseases of infectious nature
  6. Some chronic diseases

Before applying the method of manual therapy, it is necessary to reduce inflammation by taking medication or acupuncture. In case of failure of conservative treatment, surgery is indicated. But surgery is carried out already at the stage of a hernia.

When the pain subsides, and the inflammation and swelling are eliminated, you can do therapeutic exercises, massage, and exercise therapy.

The implementation of special exercises is aimed at relaxing the tense muscles of the back, strengthening them, improving the blood supply and the supply of nutrients and oxygen to the muscles and ligaments, accelerating the recovery processes. Since protrusions are most often defined in the lumbar region, we consider a set of exercises specifically for this part of the spine.

Gymnastics with lumbar protrusion spine

For the effect of the exercises to be better, and their implementation is not accompanied by pain, you should follow certain rules:

Before you start doing a set of exercises, take a warm bath. This will help to relax the muscles of the back and the whole body, as well as prepare them for physical exertion.

After completing the whole complex, do not get up abruptly, lie down for 30 minutes, your muscles need a little rest.

Do each exercise with extreme caution, it is very important at the very beginning of training. If you do not comply with this rule, the muscles can even more strain and even be damaged.

Do not assign yourself the exercises themselves, they should recommend the attending physician. If you wish to do any medical complex, consult with a specialist first.

Follow all the recommendations of the doctor with special care.

To achieve a therapeutic effect, the elasticity of the muscles and the removal of tension from them is possible only with regular exercise. Do not skip classes and always do the full range, even if it is immediately difficult.

You need to breathe evenly and calmly. Such breathing will enhance the effect of gymnastics.

Intervertebral disc protrusion

Approximate set of exercises:

  • You will need a smooth and wide board on which you can lie upright. Attach 2 straps 50 cm long each to one edge of the board. Position the board so that its upper part is at a height of 130 cm from the floor. Lie down on this homemade simulator belly and pass your hands in the straps. A small pillow should be placed under the knees. Change the position of the board and thus adjust the physical load on the spine.
  • The stretching of the spine in the lumbar region can be done with bending forward. To do this, on any support, for example, a stool, lie down with a stomach, do stretching, performing forward bends. Your body weight should be evenly distributed between the lower abdomen and upper shoulder girdle.
  • Lateral traction helps relieve pain in the sides. If painful sensations occur on the right or left, do the exercise on one side only, but if they are felt on both sides, take turns. Lie on your side and turn your upper torso forward, with the lower tilted back.
  • Walking on all fours is useful for protrusions and hernias. It is important to keep your back level and at the same time go for a greater distance.
  • Lie on your back and straighten your legs. Pull on the socks and touch the sternum with your chin. Due to the tension of the neck muscles, the spinal column will stretch.

See also:Protrusion of cervical spine disks

If you have found a protrusion, do not delay treatment. Over time, it can develop into an intervertebral hernia, which is dangerous due to the appearance of serious complications and difficult long treatment. For prevention, perform at least light exercise, so that the muscles and spine are trained and elastic.