The papillomavirus is one of the most common urogenital viruses, which is present in 90% of people. It has been proven that in 80% of cases at the age of under 30 years old there is a neutralization of the "pest" in the body, but over the years our ability to get rid of it decreases. And if the virus began to develop, it is believed that the person has acquired human papillomavirus infection. How to treat this disease - a question that worries not only patients but also doctors.
What is papilloma?
Papilloma is a benign tumor growing on a person’s skin, the size of which can reach 1-2 cm. The main places of its “dwelling” are:
- mucous membranes (mouth, nose, genitals);
- vocal cords;
- axillary hollows.
The cause of growths is the human papillomavirus, which causes transformations in the growth of tissues. Currently, about 100 strains of human papillomavirus infection are found.
How is papilloma virus transmitted?
Strains of human papillomavirus infection are transmitted sexually and through the household (through the use of, for example, one towel or linen), as well as from mother to child during childbirth. In the absence of external manifestations - papillomas - the disease is not manifested by other symptoms. The risk group for infection with this infection includes men and women who:
- lead promiscuous;
- are carriers of genital infections (gonococci, chlamydia);
- visit public places with high humidity (baths, saunas);
- suffered diseases that weakened immunity.
Also, papillomavirus often affects the mucous membranes of the genital organs of women who have had an abortion.
Papilloma virus groups
Papillomas tend to grow and transform into malignant tumors. There are a number of papilloma viruses that are considered oncogenic. However, it should be noted that any strain of this infection can provoke the development of atypical cells. Human papillomavirus viruses are divided into 3 groups according to the probability of developing cancer:
- low (1, 2, 3, 5);
- medium (6, 11, 42, 43, 44);
- high (the most oncogenous - 16 and 18 types, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66 and 68 are also dangerous).
It has been proven that viruses No. 16, 18, 31, 33 and 35 can cause cervical dysplasia, creating a favorable background for cancer of the cervix. In men, these strains can cause penile cancer.
Depending on the type of virus, several types of papillomas differ:
- flat warts;
- genital warts.
Human papillomavirus infection: symptoms
Human papillomavirus infection can not manifest itself within 1-9 months after infection. However, as a rule, after 3 months of the incubation period, we can talk about infection. The disease is asymptomatic. The only manifestations are papillomas.
- Infection with strains 1, 2, 3, 5 is manifested by warts on the back of the arms and legs, on the upper or lower eyelid, chin.
- Flat warts appear on the genitals with genital warts. Thus, 3 and 10 viruses declare themselves.
- Pink-pointed condylomas (pale or saturated), similar to the cockscomb on the leg, are most often manifested by 6 and 11 strains. Formations are located in the groin area, on the labia minora, in the mouth, near the anus, in the vagina.
Diagnosis of HPV
There are several ways to diagnose human papillomavirus infection even in the absence of external manifestations:
- examination of the gynecologist, urologist or surgeon (to determine the clinical picture of the disease);
- cytological analysis (reveals changes in tissue cells, but is not effective for determining the average and high oncogenicity of the virus);
- colposcopy (the device makes it possible to detect even small papillomas);
- Histology (analysis of HPV infection in women with the help of mucosal tissue research; 98% accurate when making a diagnosis associated with tumor markers);
- biopsy (examination of tissues under a microscope);
- PCR (detects a virus by reacting with its DNA; thus, it is possible to establish the strain of infection);
- DIGENE test (determines the type of strain, the risk group and the concentration of the virus in the tissues).
In the definition of papilloma virus, the combination of cytology and the DIGENE test is considered the "gold standard."
Treatment of human papillomavirus infection
A cure for the papilloma virus is impossible. Therefore, therapy is aimed at:
- elimination of papillomas;
- drug control of the virus;
- immunity support.
To remove warts are used:
- surgical excision;
- cryodestruction (cauterization with liquid nitrogen; leaves no traces);
- curettage (curettage of papilloma; effective, but can leave traces, therefore unacceptable, for example, for the treatment of papillomavirus infection on the neck);
- electrosurgery (destruction of papilloma tissues by discharge of current);
- laser surgery (most preferable, since at the same time the vessels that were damaged are narrowed and the bleeding stops);
- Cauterization with special preparations: solkoderm, contaridinom, trichloroacetic and salicylic acid;
- therapy with drugs that block the DNA of the virus (podophyllin, cleomycin, 5-fluorouracil, bleomycin are used, but they have side effects due to toxicity).
At the same time, a number of specialists argue that if the warts do not grow, they should not be removed.
Also, the patient is prescribed drugs containing interferons and supporting the immune system:
To combat the virus are used:
- spray epigen-intim for local action.
When prescribing treatment, specialists, as a rule, combine these therapies. But in any case, there is a risk of reappearance of papillomas.
Folk remedies against papilloma
In addition to drug therapy and the surgical solution of the problem of papillomavirus, popular methods of dealing with warts are used. Plants rich in polysaccharides and enhancing immunity are used for this: aloe, horsetail, wheatgrass, etc. Zamaniha, ginseng, and Schizandra Chinese are used to enhance the performance of phagocytes that neutralize papilloma viruses. It also helps to get rid of warts juice of celandine. They need to wipe the growths several times a day.
Prevention of papillomavirus
As you know, the disease is easier to prevent than to look for ways to cure. Therefore, in order to protect against the papillomavirus, you need:
- strengthen the immune system;
- periodically test for various microorganisms, including the papillomavirus;
- use condoms for multiple sexual intercourse;
- to observe papillomas in order to avoid their development into oncological tumors.
If you have found human papillomavirus infection, how to treat it correctly - only a specialist after diagnosis can determine. The study of these formations is key to determining the nature of the microorganism and excluding the possibility of converting warts or warts into cancer. Therefore, we should not neglect the regular tests for the papillomavirus to keep this infection "in check".