A hematological or general blood test is one of the most accessible examinations for each person, which is carried out at municipal clinics for free. It is a collection of blood from the ring finger. According to the results of the analysis, a sheet is issued, on which hemoglobin, erythrocytes, platelets, leukocytes and several other important indicators are indicated. Can I read the results myself?
How to decipher a hematological blood test?
In private clinics, you can choose the "level" of the survey, so there this analysis has several subtypes, but even in the simplest of them, hemoglobin, red blood cells, platelets and leukocytes are checked. These parameters are the most important in the overall assessment of the state. What makes them study?
Hemoglobin is an integral part of red blood cells. Its main task is to transport oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and remove carbon dioxide. A natural increase in hemoglobin is observed in severe physical labor, in other cases, deviation from the norm indicates diseases: anemia is caused by blood loss or problems with the production of hemoglobin, an increase is characteristic of lung diseases, dehydration, and erythremia.
- The concentration of hemoglobin is determined by the value of hgb, the norm depends on gender and age. In women from 18 to 45, the standard is 11.7-15.5 g / dL; for men - 13.2-17.3 g / dl. For women older than 45 years, the upper limit increases to 16.0 g / dL. For girls under 18, the norm is slightly lower - 11.5-15.3 g / dL; among boys - 11.7-12.6 g / dL. In addition, a color indicator may be indicated that determines the type of anemia — hyper, hypo, or normochromic.
Red blood cells are red blood cells that the bone marrow produces to transport oxygen. The total number of red blood cells according to the norm is 4.5 million for each 1 μl. blood, while men have more of them. The fall in the level of red blood cells is characterized by blood loss, and a strong increase - diseases of the bone marrow. Physiologically high levels of red blood cells are observed in athletes.
- According to the norm, in women from 18 to 45 years old, the level of erythrocytes should be 3.8-5.1 million / μl, in men - 4.3-5.7 million / μl. These values, depending on age, vary in ascending and descending order by only 0.1-0.2 ppm.
- Also, the analysis may include a test for ESR - erythrocyte sedimentation rate. This point is important for abnormal red blood cells: high levels of ESR indicate tumors and inflammatory processes. According to the norm, the upper limit for women from 10 to 50 years is 20 mm / h, for men - 15 mm / h.
White blood cells are white blood cells, which are also formed in the bone marrow and are responsible for immunity. The increase in leukocytes signals the presence of an inflammatory process caused by an infection or an allergen. The decrease in their number is characteristic of tumors, influenza, hyperfunction of the spleen.
- The normative indicator of leukocytes does not depend on gender and is unstable only in children under 16 years of age. In adults older than this age, 4.5–11.0 thousand / μL is considered optimal. A leukocyte formula may also be indicated here, i.e. the proportion of each type of leukocyte, which allows you to more accurately establish the diagnosis.
Platelets are formed from large cells of the bone marrow and are blood plates, the task of which is to regulate the function of blood coagulation. A decrease in their number may indicate hemolysis, autoimmune disorders. The increase is observed after surgical operations and in the event of inflammatory processes.
- Platelet jumps, as is the case with leukocytes, are characteristic only of small children. For persons older than 6 years, regardless of gender, a standard value of 150-400 thousand / μl is established.
Parallel to this, hematocrit is indicated - the ratio of platelets, erythrocytes and leukocytes to the total blood plasma. For women, it is considered optimal to be in the range of 39-49%, and for men the bar is lowered to 35-45%.
Even if you independently decipher a hematological blood test, with possible deviations you still need to consult a doctor, because, as you can see, an accurate diagnosis can only be made by raising or lowering any of the indicators. It is likely that you will need to undergo a new survey, already narrower in nature.