Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract for modern man have become as frequent companions as fatigue, mood swings, headache. However, they are several times more dangerous, and it is necessary to identify the exact cause of digestive disorders or the appearance of pain at an early stage, while most of the processes are reversible. How to check the intestines and rectum, which of the methods is the most effective?
What can be checked by palpation?
The easiest and fastest version of the examination, which is carried out by the doctor when the patient first complains about digestive problems. Of course, it is impossible to issue a complete picture with an accurate diagnosis on the basis of such a check, but it is possible to say whether certain violations of the gastrointestinal tract are observed or if there are no visible problems. The main points that can be viewed with palpation:
- muscle tension associated with peritonitis;
- rectal spasm due to infectious diseases;
In addition, the doctor is able to determine the organ that responds to pain, to check the condition of the liver and gallbladder. Often, simple palpation in the gastroenterologist's office is carried out on the entire abdominal cavity, and not just for the intestines. She has no contraindications.
It is also possible to palpate the anal canal, i.e. the study of the rectum with suspected proctological diseases. During this examination, the specialist determines the condition of the tissues and mucous membranes, the work of the sphincter, the nature of the discharge, and the pathology of the rectum. Anal palpation is also used before anoscopy, which is performed before a colonoscopy. With a high sensitivity of the patient, anesthesia is performed before the procedure to reduce the proportion of unpleasant sensations.
They are transferred to them only after primary palpation, and here several options are possible, which are either made in strict sequence, or one of them is chosen. It all depends on the disease on which suspicion falls.
- Anoscopy. Instrumental technique for testing hemorrhoids at a depth of up to 10 cm. Indications for the procedure are pain of any nature in the anal passage, stool disorders, not confirmed rectal pathology. At the same time, a biopsy can be performed and a smear taken.
- Rectoscopy It is similar to the previous procedure, but the test is carried out to a depth of 35 cm. Anesthesia is applied to reduce the severity of pain. Before the examination, the patient is given an enema. The indications are the same as for anoscopy, but discharge from the anus is added (blood, pus), the probability of sigmoid diseases. Rectoscopy is a mandatory annual test for the elderly.
- Colonoscopy. The procedure of checking the intestine from the blind to the rectum, assessing the condition of the mucous. But at the same time, the colonoscope allows performing the therapeutic function - to stop the bleeding, to remove the foreign body, to remove the neoplasm. An appointment for a colonoscopy is mandatory for individuals who have undergone the excision of polyps, the surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis and intestinal cancer.
Due to the complexity of endoscopic examinations, they are appointed only after palpation and suspicion of serious disorders: tumors, intestinal bleeding, diseases of the large intestine. In the presence of colitis and acute infectious diseases they are not carried out.
Ultrasound diagnosis of the intestine
Not always painless, but easily portable method of testing, which has no contraindications and is highly informative. During the procedure, a liquid is inserted into the patient through a catheter inserted into the anal canal to fill the small and large intestines. The contrast created by the chemical will allow you to see the work of the walls in the process of filling, changing the state of the empty and filled (opened) intestines, as well as after its purification. The rectum is checked in the same way, but the bladder is filled.
- A referral to an ultrasound of the intestine is obtained by persons with unconfirmed appendicitis, peritonitis, colitis, Crohn's disease. Using this technique, you can check the condition of the intestines for the presence of complications after inflammation of the appendix, check the abdominal pathology, the presence of tumors. In children using ultrasound check the malformations of the rectum.
What will a bowel ultrasound show? The appearance of tumors, lymphadenopathy, which are hypoechoic formations, which indicates the inflammatory process. In addition, cysts, hematomas, abscesses, diverticulosis, intestinal abnormalities, ischemia of certain areas, their infiltration can be observed.
Thus, medicine offers several effective ways to check the intestine and rectum, the choice of which is based on the patient's complaints and the state of his health at the time of the examination. It’s impossible to say which way is better, since each of them has its own goals.