Recently, due to the difficult environmental situation and the intense rhythm of life, it is increasingly happening that children are born with various pathologies, including hip dysplasia. Having heard such a diagnosis, most parents panic, not knowing what the disease is and how to cure it. Let's look at the main causes of the appearance, symptoms and treatment of dysplasia in newborns.
What is hip dysplasia in children?
Hip dysplasia occurs in a child during fetal development. This disease is associated with the slow development of the joint itself and the tissues connecting it with the limbs. In particular, such tissues can be poorly developed:
Underdevelopment of the joint or its parts leads to the emergence of a disease such as dysplasia. There are many forms of manifestation of this pathology: from small deviations, which can be corrected with the help of massages and warming, to more complicated cases where surgical intervention cannot be avoided. When deformation has undergone not only the hip bone, but also its component parts, it is not always possible to return the child's normal posture when walking.
Dysplasia most often occurs due to congenital defects associated with genetic abnormalities in parents, passing on to the baby. The hip joint in newborns is very weak, so until the age of three, doctors recommend holding as many massage sessions as possible to develop tissues and bones.
What are the causes of the development of pathology?
Experts can not say for sure, because of what dysplasia is formed, but there are several factors that determine its development:
- hormonal abnormalities;
- preterm delivery;
- external factors.
Doctors believe that the main reason for the formation of hip joint hypoplasia is hormonal abnormalities, which are more pronounced in girls. Almost 80% of babies born with this pathology are female children. This is due to the fact that women in the last term of pregnancy release a hormone that makes the ligaments and cartilage more elastic. This hormone enters through the umbilical cord and into the blood of girls, which leads to softening of the tissues and, as a result, shifts in the hip joints. Under normal conditions, this hormone is excreted 4 weeks after birth.
It is important to remember that in the process of hard swaddling the joints move, and this leads to changes in the structure of the body.
The hereditary factor is connected with the theory that the mothers of the majority of newborns with dysplasia also suffered from early childhood. Experts have concluded that pathology is transmitted precisely through the female line and in most cases to girls.
Hip dysplasia in newborns may be associated with abnormal fetal position during pregnancy. This fact is confirmed by the fact that most of the babies with such a pathology were in the womb of the mother with their left foot against the wall of the uterus, due to which the joint was curved.
In rare cases, the cause of hypoplasia may be prematurity of the fetus, since the joints and tissues are not fully formed, or a poor ecological environment. Also, the mother’s drinking and smoking can have a detrimental effect on the formation of the fetus.
Symptoms of the disease
Surgeons identify five major signs that may indicate the appearance of hip dysplasia in newborns:
- legs of unequal length;
- skin folds on the buttocks of the child are placed asymmetrically;
- strong mobility of the hip joint with the possibility of jumping out of the groove;
- a small angle of the legs, and when you try to straighten them, the child is in pain;
- hip dislocation in the opposite direction.
It is almost impossible to detect different lengths of legs at birth. However, the disease can be diagnosed by the asymmetry of the skin on the buttocks. Strong mobility of the joint is observed when trying to push the legs apart. When moving or during a massage, one of the baby’s feet can easily move until the joint is popping out. This suggests that the child has too soft muscle tissue and a large cavity in the joint.
In a normally developing child, the legs should quietly move apart at a right angle when they are bent at the knees. If this does not happen, then it is worth thinking that the newborn has inelastic skin and tendons. In this case, one leg will have a pathology, and an urgent need to consult a doctor for advice.
Dislocation of the hip in the opposite direction can be strongly noticeable in the first hours after the birth of the child. It is easy to see when the baby is sleeping: he will have an unnaturally unfolded hip joint. This pathology is the most difficult type of disease and can be treated only through surgical intervention.
Methods of treatment and prevention of dysplasia in newborns
There are several treatment methods that can be applied both together and separately, depending on the degree of the disease:
- surgical intervention;
- conservative approach;
- conducting therapeutic and preventive measures.
If dysplasia is detected at an early stage, then it is possible to achieve positive results in treatment in the first months, using massage and physiotherapy. Massage for dysplasia of the hip joints is prescribed to newborns for up to three months, since the bones of the baby are more malleable and you can do without surgical intervention.
For the treatment of children up to three years apply several methods at once:
- Pavlik's stirrups;
- exhaust tires;
- adhesive traction;
Such methods are used when dysplasia of the hip joint is detected at an early stage, and with the help of these procedures it is possible to increase blood circulation and strengthen the joints of the infant.
In cases where a dislocated hip is diagnosed in the advanced stage, the use of conservative treatment will not bring the desired result.
Surgical intervention is carried out in the following areas:
- dividing the bone into two parts for proper fusion;
- insertion of a prosthesis instead of the affected joint area;
- leg extension;
- reduction of dislocation.
Surgical intervention is very long and painful, therefore it should be applied only in the most extreme cases when other treatment options did not bring the desired result.
The causes of hypoplasia are most often associated with an abnormal lifestyle of the mother or an unfavorable environmental situation. Therefore, to avoid negative consequences, it is necessary to monitor the regime and well-being of the child.
In almost 80% of cases, hip dysplasia in children is cured if the necessary measures are taken promptly enough. However, if the disease is not treated, it can lead to severe disability.