Glaucoma is a disease that is most common in people in old age and without proper treatment can lead to very serious consequences - until they lose the ability to see. But, unfortunately, not only age-related changes can lead to it. What is glaucoma? The causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention of this disease should be known to everyone, so as not to put themselves at risk.
Glaucoma - what is it?
This disease includes a whole group of eye diseases associated with increased pressure in the eyes and subsequent organ dysfunction. When the eye is healthy, a liquid circulates in them, the so-called watery moisture. It not only nourishes the eyes with essential substances, but also eliminates the metabolic products that appear as a result of the work of the organ. But if the channels through which the outflow of fluid occurs, are blocked (the reasons for this phenomenon, we consider below), then the excess fluid begins to accumulate, creating excess pressure. This, in turn, leads to malnutrition of tissues and atrophy of the optic nerve. At this stage, the process is already irreversible, and the person loses - first partially, then completely - vision.
Glaucoma is 3 types.
- Primary - in this case, the disease manifests itself against the background of age-related changes in tissues and vessels. Most often manifested in people who have stepped over the 45-year-old frontier, and before that no eye diseases can be observed throughout life. This species is considered the most common.
- Secondary - can occur at any age, and it can be caused by previous diseases or eye injuries, as well as diseases of the whole body.
- Congenital - associated with impaired development of the embryo.
In its form, the disease is divided into 2 types.
- Open-angle is the most common form and also the most insidious, since it is often invisible and manifests only when the disease has already developed quite strongly. Sometimes it can be characterized by a slight blurring of vision or the formation of colored circles when looking at the light.
- Closed-angle - this species is less common, and more typical of people with severe farsightedness. In this case, you may experience headaches, a feeling of strong pressure in the eye area, and even nausea.
In addition to age-related changes, the following factors can provoke the appearance of glaucoma:
- vascular diseases;
- cataract (after its removal, glaucoma may also appear);
- alcohol consumption;
- cervical osteochondrosis;
- great strain on the eyes;
- the use of drugs that expand the pupil.
Signs of Glaucoma
As mentioned above, in some cases, the disease may be asymptomatic, and the person finds it only when the vision has already noticeably deteriorated. But the reason for the immediate appeal to a specialist are the following signs of glaucoma:
- strong sensitivity to light, tearfulness;
- frequent pains in the eyes and head (especially morning pains);
- blurred or reduced visual acuity;
- when looking at the light, bright spots and circles appear;
- narrowing and deformation of the visual field;
- difficulty adapting to the dark.
An acute attack of glaucoma develops in the event that the intraocular pressure for some reason, sharply and greatly increased. This usually occurs against the background of an existing problem in a chronic form, and exacerbation can be triggered by the following factors:
- severe stress;
- severe physical exertion;
- sauna visit;
- prolonged stay in the head-down position.
Such an acute attack of glaucoma is expressed by the following symptoms:
- sharp painful sensations around one eye, radiating to the head (usually in the frontal part);
- visual impairment;
- redness of the whites of the eyes and eyelids;
- nausea, weakness, vomiting;
Although it is not possible to restore the activity of the damaged optic nerve with the neglected form of the disease, it is quite possible to stop the development of the disease and the decline of vision. Before starting treatment, it is necessary to make a diagnosis, which includes:
- measurement of eye pressure and visual field;
- determination of the state of the vessels;
- measurement of corneal thickness and determination of other parameters necessary for the appointment of the correct treatment.
Whatever type of treatment you choose (traditional or traditional medicine), it should be carried out under the supervision of a specialist.
Since the main cause of glaucoma is the presence of increased intraocular pressure, treatment should be directed, first of all, to its decrease. In the initial stages, drug treatment (drops) is usually used, as well as a physiotherapeutic method. In addition to reducing eye pressure, these methods can normalize blood flow and metabolic processes in the eyes.
If all these methods do not give the desired result, surgery is appointed. Its essence is to remove the accumulated fluid from the eye, causing an increase in pressure. Such an operation is considered serious enough and therefore requires highly skilled surgeon.
In the early stages of the development of the disease is often a good result gives treatment with traditional methods. Here are the most effective recipes for natural remedies for glaucoma:
- take 3 tbsp. l dried calendula flowers and pour it with 1 liter of boiling water, leave for about 2 hours. After that, having filtered the infusion, drink it daily 3 times a day for ½ tbsp. (15-20 minutes before meals), and use for washing eyes.
- chopped dill seeds (1 tsp) pour boiling water (1 tbsp.) and leave for 60 minutes. You need to take this infusion 3 times daily before meals, for 2 weeks. After a break of 10 days, the course must be repeated.
- a mixture of aloe juice with honey (taken on 1 tsp. of each ingredient) is poured with a glass of boiled water. The resulting composition is necessary for the night to bury in the eye just 1 drop.
A good effect for glaucoma is also provided by regular eye exercises and eyelid massage. They help to improve blood circulation and eye fluid, and relieve excess eye pressure.
If your family has a predisposition for glaucoma or you are at risk for other criteria, then you should be especially careful about the health of your eyes. Avoid the appearance or development of glaucoma will help compliance with the following rules.
- Do not lift weights above 10 kg.
- Avoid physical or nervous stress.
- A quality and sufficient sleep is needed.
- Food should include a large number of fresh vegetables, herbs, fruits, and fatty heavy food and sugar should be limited.
- Work at the computer or watching TV must be accompanied by additional lighting.
- You should not spend a long time in a position in which the head is lowered.
- With eye strain, take breaks to rest every 10-15 minutes.
- Eliminate alcohol and smoking - this instantly removes the additional strain on the eyes.
- Do not wear collars that are too tight so as not to impair blood circulation.
- To avoid pressure on the vessels, you should not go to the sauna and engage in high-intensity exercise in hot weather.
- In the bright sun, use dark sunglasses.
- Performing exercises for the eyes.
- Diagnosis by an oculist with a predisposition to the disease or being in the age-related risk group is required every 3-4 months.
Knowing what glaucoma is (causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention), you are more likely to protect yourself and your loved ones from this phenomenon. Careful and careful attitude to your health, adherence to a healthy lifestyle and timely treatment will allow you to avoid this disease or stop the existing one.