Winter is the time of games on the street, sledges, snowballs, snow woman sculpting. Frosty air stings the skin, but despite this, kids are delighted with the winter fun. Parents can not rejoice at laughing children who so love to lie in the snow ... But it is worth remembering the consequences of such an active holiday, namely the possibility of frostbite cheeks in a child.
Signs of frostbite
Frostbite occurs due to prolonged exposure to cold on a certain part of the body. Frostbite of open areas that are not covered by clothing — face, limbs — is most often recorded. Do not forget about the general frostbite. As with burns, there are several degrees of injury.
In clinical practice, doctors talk about the following degrees of frostbite:
- Grade 1 is characterized by redness of the area of skin that has been exposed to cold, after that, the dermis becomes bluish and edema occurs;
- Grade 2 is characterized by the formation of bubbles with hemorrhagic contents (from light brown to dark chocolate);
- At grade 3, the skin becomes bluish, and bubbles with bloody contents are formed;
- Grade 4 is characterized by complete frostbite of the limbs and skin areas, from which they become black.
Parents should remember that the child cannot independently determine frostbite of the limbs and cheeks. Often, the first symptoms go unnoticed. Chiplet or stabbing cheeks - it "bites" frost, do not worry. Gradually, the child simply ceases to notice such symptoms. Most often, children suffer from frostbite nose, ears, cheeks and fingers. Parents should independently control the process of walking and complete the walk at the first signs of frostbite.
The reaction of cold redness is considered completely normal. Therefore, the child’s reddened cheeks in the cold, this is not frostbite, but an attempt by the body to be heated on its own, namely blood. When exposed to cold, the blood vessels dilate, and blood flow to the tissues that are in contact with the environment is enhanced. So warming happens.
So, where is the line between frostbite and normal reaction? Pink cheeks - the norm, but if after a blush appeared paleness on the skin, then this is a clear sign of frostbite in a child. The vessels begin to narrow, because the body's protective and heating forces are already running out. At the same time, the sensitivity of the skin to touch is lost, and to the touch it becomes firm.
Parents should immediately take the child to a warm room, as soon as pale spots appear on his cheeks and hands. And on coming home, the most important task is to warm the frostbitten skin and restore blood circulation in them.
Especially dangerous is frostbite of the cheeks in the infant, because the fragile organism of the crumbs is not yet able to cope with serious loads and aggressive environmental influences. When taking out a newborn for a walk in winter, be extremely careful!
What to do when frostbite cheeks in a child?
The first thing to do is to undress the child. Ideally, you should place it in a bath with warm water, best of all, if it is 36 - 37 degrees. Water should not be allowed to cool; its temperature must be gradually increased to 40 degrees. Bath time should be at least 40 minutes.
At this time, it is necessary to additionally make a light massage of the areas of the body that have been most affected by low temperatures.
Even if the parents noticed only frostbite of the child’s cheeks, this does not mean that the legs and arms did not hurt him. It is necessary to begin rubbing from the tips of the fingers of the limbs and only gradually rise upwards. Massaging the child's cheeks is necessary almost from the ear itself. If the baby complains of pain during such manipulations, the efforts are not in vain - the blood circulation is restored.
After taking a bath, it is necessary to wipe the child thoroughly with a long nap towel with a terry towel, you can rub it - this will improve blood circulation. After such a bath, the baby needs to be kept warm, wrapped in a blanket for several hours.
What is strictly prohibited?
It is forbidden to rub frostbitten areas of the body with snow, especially in severe frost. The fact is that snow is ice crystals that have a rather high degree of abrasiveness, i.e. can easily damage baby’s skin. In addition, additional low-temperature exposure will only worsen the situation.
Do not rub the frostbitten skin with a woolen cloth, you can easily injure the surface of the skin. Wool can strip off fabric and leave irritation and even abrasions after exposure.
It is not recommended to warm the frostbitten areas with warmth of the hands or breathing. In the latter case, additional humidity can only worsen the situation.
It is strictly forbidden to cut, pierce or in any way affect the formed bubbles during frostbite.
- It is necessary to adhere to certain rules that will help avoid frostbite. It is necessary to limit or completely postpone walks in very cold and windy weather. Before walking the baby must be fed.
- It is necessary to dress the child, so that there are layers of air between the clothes, which will help to keep warm.
- Parents should carefully choose clothes for their offspring, which should be not only beautiful and fashionable, but also high-quality. By the way, the last factor is given the greatest preference. Modern practical clothing allows the baby to actively move, but at the same time retains heat perfectly.
- In addition, high-quality underwear and clothing allows you to absorb baby's sweat, which significantly reduces the risk of the likelihood of not only frostbite formation, but also various kinds of colds.
It is worth remembering that it is easiest to prevent frostbite than to treat them. For these reasons, parents should strictly monitor the time of the walk and the weather, and as soon as the first symptoms of frostbite appeared or the weather deteriorated significantly, the baby should be immediately led to a warm room. But to leave a child without walking is also impossible! Try to find a competent compromise.