Many parents are lost when their crumb picks up some specific contagion. One of the groups of dangerous infectious diseases is an enterovirus infection in children, whose symptoms are very diverse. In addition to general weakness, drowsiness, fever, there are a number of disorders in the gastrointestinal tract and other body systems.
The nature of the disease and the route of infection
Today, science knows about 60 varieties of enterovirus infection. In children, the symptoms of the disease are more pronounced than in adults. Mild forms are relatively painless, but neglected cases are fraught with serious complications. In the worst case, the virus can infect the heart, liver or brain.
The main source of infection is considered a sick person. A virus can be transmitted in the following ways:
- airborne droplets;
- household contact;
- through contaminated water;
- through contaminated food.
The high risk of infection and instability of the incubation period made enteroviruses insidious hidden enemies of the body. The danger of the disease lies in the fact that its pathogens are very weakly exposed to the negative influence of the external environment, even the most aggressive. These intestinal viruses can lurk in moist soil or in water for a long period.
Children and adolescents are considered the most susceptible to infection, especially in summer and autumn. The virus first infects the mucous membranes of the respiratory system and the digestive tract, causing the characteristic signs of ARI and intestinal disorders. Next, the pathogen enters the bloodstream, spreading throughout the body.
Given the variety of signs of enterovirus infection in children, the approach to treatment should also be comprehensive. A significant role in the positive outcome is the quality and timeliness of diagnosis.
Symptoms of enterovirus infection in children
The complexity of the treatment of this disease is that its first signs can be confused with manifestations of other diseases, in particular, respiratory. After the incubation period, the child will experience the following conditions:
- fast fatiguability;
- respiratory symptoms - runny nose and cough;
- recurrent bouts of nausea;
- emetic urge;
- pain in the peritoneum;
- elevated body temperature.
At this stage, the symptoms are mild, and in some cases do not manifest themselves at all. As soon as the enterovirus enters the circulatory system, the process of infection of internal organs and other systems begins. During this period, the sick child has the following symptoms:
- high body temperature;
- swelling of the hands and feet;
- the appearance of ulcers in the mouth;
- bowel disorder.
Often, an enterovirus infection in children causes a rash on the face, body and limbs. Pinkish rashes are predominantly spotty-papular in nature. As a rule, a body rash lasts no longer than 2 days.
In the case of a rapid and severe course of the disease, there is a risk of developing such complications:
- pulmonary edema.
In the most advanced cases, the infection can be fatal or irreversible damage to the central nervous system. Recently, however, babies are more often diagnosed with a weaker version of enterovirus infection, in which the disease disappears in 3-4 days, and the symptoms are limited to general weakness, feverish conditions and muscle pain.
Diagnosis and treatment of enterovirus infection
The diagnosis requires laboratory tests, in particular:
- molecular biological methods.
To conduct all the necessary research will take some time. During this period, it is important to prevent the spread of infection by protecting the sick boy or girl from contact with the rest of the family. If the diagnosis is confirmed, the data are entered into separate statistics of the epidemiological survey.
Already at the first signs of enterovirus infection in children should begin treatment. Special measures to combat this type of infection today does not exist. Therapy is designed to stop the multiplication of viruses and ease the course of the disease. For this, a sick baby is prescribed the following therapeutic measures:
- bed rest;
- prevention of dehydration with the help of special preparations, for example, Rehydron or Oralita;
- the use of antiviral drugs, in particular the group of interferons;
- analgesics and antipyretic drugs in case of fever or muscle pain;
- detoxification therapy with the use of enterosorbents;
- antibiotic therapy prescribed for the appearance of secondary bacterial infections.
An important condition for getting rid of enterovirus infection is also a diet. All food should be easily digested by the digestive system. It is advisable to exclude from the diet dairy products, fatty, smoked and fried foods, soda, sweets, raw fruits and vegetables.
Like any disease of this type, enterovirus infection is better prevented than cured. Preventive measures are usually aimed at improving sanitation, hygiene standards, and a careful approach to food choices. When the first signs of the disease appear in a child, do not hesitate with the diagnosis. Despite the similarity with the usual SARS, enterovirus more cunning. Immediate actions will help to avoid serious complications and cope with the infection as soon as possible.