A sharp and unexpected jump in blood pressure is called hypertensive crisis. Depending on the so-called working pressure, the top bar is different during this increase. Timely emergency care for a hypertensive crisis is important, because the consequences can be dire.
How to determine the onset of hypertensive crisis?
A marked deterioration in well-being accompanied by certain symptoms - this is a manifestation of a hypertensive crisis. At the same time, the probability of complications from the heart muscle, as well as the brain, kidneys and vision, is quite high. Measures of assistance in such a person's condition should be aimed at protecting organs suffering from increased pressure, and at relieving symptoms.
It should be borne in mind that the emergency lowering of blood pressure must necessarily be fast enough and fully controlled. There is a danger of hypoxia of organs and tissues due to insufficient blood supply in case of excessive decrease in pressure. The pace and limits of reducing systolic and diastolic pressure, taking into account all the nuances of the situation, the doctor plans. Accordingly, the doctor chooses the drug and its dosage.
After stabilization of the condition of the sick person, adjustment of therapy for hypertension is required. Since the crisis manifested itself, therefore, regular treatment is not effective enough. However, in most cases, it is revealed that the hypertensive patient, on his own initiative, stopped treatment or changed the medication. The discipline of taking the prescribed drugs, careful execution of lifestyle adjustments is the key to preventing a hypertensive crisis.
- blood pressure is higher than 140/90 mm Hg. v .;
- increased fatigue;
- headache, especially in the neck;
- reddening of the face and chest;
- increased sweating;
- nausea and gagging;
- whistling, tinnitus;
- blurred vision;
- trouble sleeping, anxiety, fear.
Factors contributing to hypertensive crisis:
- changing weather conditions;
- stressful condition;
- alcohol consumption;
- eating a lot of salt;
- discontinuation of medication for hypertension.
Emergency medical measures for hypertensive crisis
According to the clinical classification, the hypertensive crisis is divided into two types:
- Complicated - with the need for emergency hospitalization and the use of intravenous antihypertensive drugs with the aim of immediately lowering blood pressure. Complicated crisis requires the provision of assistance within an hour, since there is a high probability of irreversible damage to target organs.
- Uncomplicated. It does not differ acute lesion of the heart muscle, as well as the kidneys, brain and vision, does not require an emergency reduction of arterial pressure.
When providing emergency care for hypertensive crisis, doctors adhere to a specific algorithm of actions:
- Determine the level of increase in blood pressure.
- Purpose "Konidina" or "Captopril".
- When a person's target organs appear or increase, they are placed in intensive care to monitor blood pressure and administer intravenously.
- Transfer to hospital with continuation of therapy with tablet medications.
In the absence of target organ damage, the patient is monitored. If blood pressure is unstable, then the patient is transferred to the hospital with the appointment of therapy. With pressure stabilization, outpatient treatment is allowed.
Actions of doctors with high blood pressure:
- therapy tactics - observation up to 3 hours, increasing the dose of oral medications in the absence of the effect of the initial appointments;
- observation up to three days, planned treatment.
The actions of physicians in hypertensive crisis uncomplicated nature:
- therapy tactics - observation up to six hours, gradual lowering of blood pressure with tablet preparations, revision of the prescribed before this treatment;
- observation during the day.
The actions of physicians in complicated hypertensive crisis:
- treatment tactics - the introduction of intravenous antihypertensive drugs, pressure monitoring, emergency delivery to intensive care;
- observation - intensive care, controlled lowering of blood pressure with a further transition to oral medications.
In a hypertensive crisis of a complicated nature, the following drugs are prescribed:
Preparations for uncomplicated crisis:
The algorithm for providing emergency care for hypertensive crisis is as follows:
- First of all, you need to call the ambulance carriage.
- The patient must assume the position half-sitting.
- Every quarter of an hour you need to control the pressure.
- It is necessary to take drugs used by patients in daily therapy to combat hypertension.
- It is important to ensure the flow of fresh air into the room, the patient’s rest and dim lighting.
In addition, doctors recommend reassuring the patient, and in case of chest pains, take a Nitroglycerin pill under the tongue. With a relentless feeling of anxiety and fear, you can drink sedatives, for example, valerian.
Knowledge of the emergency response algorithm for hypertensive crisis will help you to control the situation and not to panic. Take care of yourself!