There is not a single organ in our body that does not receive blood. It supplies all tissues and systems with oxygen and nutrients, while taking the waste materials out of them. The composition of blood in a healthy person is relatively constant, and all its shaped elements are contained in a certain amount. Any change in their concentration signals the presence of pathology. Analysis of the blood composition helps to determine the area of the body where the crisis occurred, and take appropriate measures. What can increased blood platelets in a child tell?
The role of platelets in the blood
Reading articles about the human body, we often find phrases about the exceptional importance of an organ, without which livelihood is impossible. But this is the wisdom of nature - in our body there is nothing superfluous, and everything in it is the most important. This concerns not only organs, but also every cell.
Such small blood cells as platelets are no exception. These are special non-nuclear cells - blood plates. They are produced by the bone marrow, and the process of their synthesis is uninterrupted. In the normal state, the number of platelets throughout the day fluctuates around the number of 300 billion plates in one liter of blood. The life span of blood platelets is up to 10 days. Then they are disposed of in the liver and spleen.
What is their importance? For example, you have a slight cut of your finger. You will not call an ambulance because of this, because you are sure that after some time the blood will stop and the wound will heal. So, if it were not for the platelets, then you could hardly have managed without the Ambulance. The loss of blood up to 15% of its total amount in the body is considered uncritical, exceeding this value is fatal.
It is thanks to the blood coagulation mechanism that we are saved from abundant blood loss with every cut. The basis of this mechanism are platelets. With the smallest violation of the integrity of the blood vessels or capillaries, platelets rush to the scene of the accident and begin to “patch up”. They stick to the edge of the damaged vessel and stick together to form a clot like a cork. This platelets justify its name, which in Greek means a clot.
In addition, platelets secrete serotin - a hormone that contributes to the narrowing of the damaged vessel and the resulting decrease in blood flow. Next, plasma proteins are connected to the solution of the problem, and the blood finally clots. After eliminating blood loss, blood volume is restored within a few hours due to the redistribution of fluid in the tissues of the body. But at the cellular level, the recovery will last several weeks, depending on the volume of lost blood.
Blood platelets are elevated in a child: causes
Elevated blood platelet levels in a child are thrombocytosis or thrombocythemia. The development of this disease is possible at different ages. Diagnose thrombocythemia, when the concentration of platelets reaches 800 thousand in 1 cubic meter. ml of blood and more. The increase in the number of platelets occurs due to a number of diseases.
There are primary forms of thrombocythemia and secondary. In the first case, the cause is heredity and diseases such as erythremia and myeloid leukemia, the essence of which is reduced to a defect in the bone marrow stem cells associated with their growth. As a result, platelet reproduction increases.
The causes of secondary thrombocytosis can be:
- low levels of hemoglobin, iron deficiency in the body;
- acute rheumatic fever;
- chronic inflammation of the colon mucosa;
- any infectious diseases;
- profuse bleeding, including internal;
- splenectomy - surgery to remove a diseased or damaged spleen;
- oncological diseases;
- damage to the tubular bones;
- violation of protein metabolism - amyloidosis;
- side effects from taking glucocorticosteroids, adrenaline, epinephrine;
- prolonged psycho-emotional impact, stress.
The causes of thrombocytosis in children and adults determine the mechanism of its development. For example, all the inflammatory processes in the body are accompanied by the acceleration of the synthesis of thrombopoietin, a hormone that stimulates the maturation of young platelets. By increasing the number of platelets, the body fights off inflammation.
As you understand, thrombocythemia is not an independent disease. To reduce the level of platelets in the blood to normal, it is necessary to fight primarily with the cause that led to such changes. Given the role of platelets in the body, it would be logical to assume that an excessive amount of them will cause blood to thicken, and this will complicate the work of the entire circulatory system and heart. In this case, the blood must be diluted.
This goal can be achieved both with drugs, and with the help of dietary nutrition, the use of complex treatment is possible. The best natural blood thinners are kiwi, pomegranate, ginger, lemon, garlic.
The use of drugs depends on the type of thrombocytosis. For the treatment of primary forms use:
- Cytotoxic drugs - Mielosan, Myelobromol. They can be used in conjunction with hardware removal of platelets from the bloodstream.
- Aspirin, Trental is used to improve microcirculation and reduce the stickiness of blood platelets.
- In severe cases with mandatory daily monitoring of the dynamics of thrombocytosis, anticoagulants are prescribed - Heparin, Bivalirudin, Argothoban.
The treatment of the secondary form is based on the therapy of the underlying disease plus diluting agents.
Dear parents, do not ignore the complaints of your children about the indisposition or discomfort. Early diagnosis of the disease will help avoid complications and lead to a quick recovery!