Diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract

You may not even guess that you have something wrong with your kidneys until you pass the tests or you do an ultrasound. After all, they rarely warn about their problems in the early stages. How can kidney and urinary tract diseases manifest, what are the symptoms of various pathologies and the main directions of treatment?

How do I know that kidney is spoiled?

Pathology of the urinary tract

Pathologies of the urinary tract occur in 30% of people (both sexes), and in half of the cases, the disease is asymptomatic at first. But there are also specific manifestations that make it possible to assume that there was a rift in the activities of these particular bodies. Symptoms of kidney disease in women and men are the same. They look like this:

  • pain in the lumbar region (right-left or on both sides). It can be quite significant. The pain radiates to the pubis, thighs, abdomen;
  • hematuria - the presence of blood in the urine. It may acquire a pinkish hue, and if the ureter is injured by a stone, it becomes bright scarlet and opaque;
  • swelling. Puffiness arises (at first) in the morning. First of all, the legs and upper limbs "flow" much less frequently;
  • disturbed urination - pain when trying to empty the bladder. Anuria - the absence of urine, oliguria - a significant reduction in its quantity. Pollakiuria - increased fluid excretion (up to 10 liters per day);
  • general ill health - weakness, fatigue, headache, nausea, decreased appetite;
  • in some cases, a rise in temperature;
  • increased sweating, chills;
  • paleness of the skin, dark circles around the eyes.

Symptoms can be both acute and smoothed.

What are common signs of urinary tract disease?

These pathologies may develop latently (asymptomatically) at first, then a person has the following complaints:

  • frequent, painful urination, false urge to empty the bladder;
  • discharge from the urethra;
  • burning sensation in the bladder or urethra;
  • discomfort in the groin;
  • turbidity of urine, admixture of pus;
  • Feeling unwell - weakness and decreased performance.

Kidney disease: a list and characteristic symptoms

Kidney disease: a list and characteristic symptoms

Depending on the pathology, the following manifestations of the disease can be observed:

  • nephrolitase, or kidney stones. Dull pain in the lower back, which becomes more pronounced during exercise. When the illness turns into a severe form, unbearable pain, vomiting, tachycardia, and signs of shock appear: cold sweat, blanching, loss of consciousness. In the urine blood. Treatment - surgical or dissolution of stones with the help of drugs;
  • glomerulonephritis. Manifested by edema, increased blood pressure, apathy, headache, fever, oliguria and hematuria. Then irritability, depression, sleep disturbance are added to the listed symptoms. The treatment is carried out in a hospital, diuretics are prescribed, anticoagulant and antiaggregate therapy (Aspirin) is given, antibiotics are prescribed (Erythromycin, Clarithromycin);
  • pyelonephritis. Symptoms (as well as treatment, they depend on the stage of the disease — chronic or acute) —the temperature rises to 39 and higher (it cannot be brought down by ordinary antipyretic), chills, sweating, nausea, back pain (gives into the lower abdomen and groin), turbidity urine, puffy face. Antibiotic therapy is carried out, microcirculation improving and anti-inflammatory drugs are used. Diet is important;
  • polycystic. At first, it does not make itself felt; when cysts are multiple, a number of symptoms are revealed: aching pain in the abdomen and lower back, periodic appearance of blood in the urine, weakness, no desire to eat, weight loss, volume (up to 3 l) urine (it is light), itchy skin. Therapy includes painkillers, antihypertensives and anti-inflammatories. An operation to remove a cyst may be performed. The extreme measure of treatment is kidney removal;
  • renal failure. Urine formation decreases or stops completely, blood pressure drops, pulse speeds up, uremia develops - there is ammonia smell in breath, thirst torments the patient, convulsions, bone pain are noted. Treatment - in reanimation or intensive care unit. An artificial kidney apparatus is connected, hemodialysis is performed, in some cases a kidney transplant is required.

Diseases of the urinary organs and symptoms

Most often such pathologies of the organs of the excretory system are found:

  • urethritis. It is characterized by frequent painful urination, pulling pain in the groin; change in the smell and color of urine (for men, discharge from the urethra). Outpatient treatment. The doctor prescribes antibiotics, sedatives, physiotherapy is used;
  • cystitis (inflammation of the bladder) - symptoms: frequent urge, pain when urinating (increases at the end of the process), decrease in urine volume, pain in the suprapubic zone. Bed rest is shown, the patient should drink plenty of fluids, follow a diet, make herbs with herbs. Of the drugs prescribed antispasmodics (No-shpa, Papaverin), antibiotics, herbal remedies (Canephron, Cystone);
  • prostatitis. Pain in the lower abdomen, decreased sexual function, blood in the urine and semen. Mandatory antibiotics (Erythromycin, Ciprofloxacin), painkillers, herbal teas. Physiotherapy is widely used. Massage of the prostate gland.

Diagnostic methods

Methods of diagnosis of the kidneys

Diagnostics is carried out using the following laboratory and instrumental methods:

  • Ultrasound examination;
  • urography with contrast agents;
  • CT scan;
  • radiography
  • blood chemistry;
  • Analysis of urine;
  • scraping discharge from the genitals;
  • bladder cystoscopy;
  • biopsy.

Diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract, whose symptoms are not always able to identify in time, require competent treatment. They not only affect the human condition, but also provoke the deterioration of the work of other organs. If left untreated, the consequences could be catastrophic. Therefore, closely monitor your condition and pay attention to any, even minor, signals that your body makes.

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