Not every cholesterol is dangerous: even one that is measured in serum can be good if it is HDL - a high-density lipoprotein. Its level should be as high as possible, although, of course, within reasonable limits. But the low-density lipoprotein is not needed by the body, since it is it that settles on the vascular walls and, when accumulated, forms the very plaques that are spoken of so much. How to regulate cholesterol?
Why is it important to know cholesterol levels?
The bulk of diseases of the cardiovascular system is directly related to an increase in LDL: myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, ischemia. Most often they begin with a deterioration in the vascular permeability within which cholesterol is gradually collected; along with this, the blood flow is disturbed, oxygen and vital elements are poorly supplied.
At the same time, the speed of movement does not change, as a result of which the density of blood and arterial pressure increase.
Clearly, the situation can be represented in the form of traffic jams familiar to everyone: the high flow of cars and the resulting obstacle inevitably lead to traffic jam, the duration of which stretches during rush hours. For blood, this “rush hour” is constant, therefore, as soon as the vessel is clogged so that blood at its normal speed does not have time to run into the remaining hole, it begins to accumulate before the “entrance”, blood pressure rises, the vessel stretches and at some point breaks . An internal hemorrhage occurs, and if this happens on the way to the brain or to the heart, an attack of stroke or heart attack is diagnosed. The situation often ends in death.
- 60% of cases of hypercholesteremia - malnutrition and lack of exercise. However, there are still 40% that are tied to genetics: diseases of the liver and thyroid gland, diabetes. Among external factors, one can not fail to mention stress, abuse of nicotine, and abdominal obesity - for women it is characterized by a waist size of more than 80 cm.
However, due to the fact that this element is produced directly by the body (to a greater extent than it comes from outside), dietary restrictions do not always work correctly. But nevertheless, how then to act and what to navigate?
What increases the risk of cholesterol spikes?
Food cholesterol, which still has an effect on whey, should be limited, but cannot be completely excluded from the diet. Its daily dose should not exceed 400 mg, and with a propensity for the appearance of hypercholestenemia - 300 mg. Moreover, if you pay attention to the diets recommended for high cholesterol, you can see that the sources of this element are not excluded even here. Such a course is due to the fact that with its complete absence in food, the body will begin enhanced synthesis, as a result of which the patient’s condition may become even more acute.
- Forming a diet for yourself - not even a diet, but a regular menu of a healthy person - you need to bear in mind that saturated fats contribute to the increase in "bad" cholesterol, and polysaturated or fatty acids contribute to a drop.
Following this scheme, doctors advise to reduce the frequency of appearance on the dining table of the main sources of saturated fats: cheese, refined oil, fatty meats, eggs. True, again, this should not be a complete rejection of everything.
- Cream and their derivatives (including ice cream), cheese, coconut, corn and cottonseed oils, beef, pork, lamb, and lard, as well as chicken fat and meat by-products have the highest concentration of saturated fats. Accordingly, sausages, sausages, etc. come here.
- As for eggs, about which there is a lot of controversy, the danger here is only the yolk: it contains almost 275 mg of cholesterol, which is more than 70% of the daily requirement. And even so, some doctors believe that this cholesterol can act as a kind of "vaccine" against the increase in LDL. However, only in a healthy person, so the rest is better to reduce the frequency of consuming yolks to 3 pieces. for the week, the rest of the time excluding it and using only protein.
- Vegetable oils in the diet are necessary, but it should not be sunflower, not corn and not sesame. Take olive oil - even though there is a little more saturated fat in it than in sunflower (2 g versus 1.5 g per 1 tablespoon) it has a high level of PUFA. Moreover, it can be used for hot dishes. You can buy rapeseed, grape seed oil, sometimes even resort to peanut.
It should be noted that not only fatty acids can reduce the likelihood of developing hypercholesterolemia: some other elements, such as pectin, phytosterol, also have this ability. To understand what should be present in your menu, it is recommended to study the table of products that lower cholesterol in the blood.
Sources of phytosterol
Sunflower seeds and sesame seeds, wheat germ, pistachios, pumpkin and flax seeds, almonds, pine nuts, avocados, olive oil
Sources of pectin
Legumes, cabbage, grapefruit, orange, apples, pineapples, pumpkin, watermelon, plum
Sources of polyphenols
Blueberries, mountain ash, pomegranate, cranberries, red currants, lingonberries, raspberries, grapes of red varieties; any purple fruit
Sources of PUFA
Sardines, any red fish
Oatmeal, cereals, soybeans, garlic, eggplants, zucchini, onions
The share of pectin should not be less than 15 g, if it is important for you to reduce cholesterol, and 25 g - if you need to fight obesity. Moreover, in fruits it is located directly in the pulp, therefore, the use of juices is of lower value. Especially if we are talking about packaged.
What should be the diet?
As could be understood from the above, a diet with high cholesterol in both women and men should not imply a complete abandonment of sources of dietary cholesterol. But still his share is also strictly regulated. Proteins and fats coming from products of animal origin (including the dairy group) should not exceed 30% of the daily plate: the remaining 70% is given to plant foods. This proportion reduces the likelihood of jumps not only cholesterol, but also other elements - for example, sugar, which also has a link to hypercholesterolemia.
- Fish is the main source of protein and PUFA, the main component of the dinner table. You can use any of its types, regardless of fat content, but we must not forget that the benefits will be obtained only from boiled, baked or steamed. As soon as you fry a fish, all its good qualities will be crossed out by carcinogens. For seafood, these statements are also relevant.
- Nuts should be used for snacking, without mixing with main dishes, or added to salads. Daily volume should not exceed 50 g.
- White bread is recommended to replace the one that is baked on wholemeal flour or at least using bran. Oatmeal or whole-grain crackers will make cookies for tea. After the cholesterol level is lowered, you can return to the butter (in small quantities!), But it is better to prepare it yourself to control the ingredients and their volume.
- Tianin, contained in green tea, is necessary for the body, therefore this drink is not prohibited. But the coffee is better to refuse.
- Dairy products should be present in the diet, but with a minimum percentage of fat. The same applies to beef: lean pieces not only can, but must be in the menu.
When composing a diet plan, remember that in addition to the restrictions on food, you should stick with nicotine withdrawal and also put physical activity into the daily routine: it will be useful for people with obesity and those who have normal weight but poor vascular permeability.
What is the approximate menu for the week?
According to the table above, vegetables and fruits, as well as cereals, should be present in the diet with high cholesterol. Given the fact that they are required to make up to 70% of the daily plate, they are included in almost every meal. Fish and seafood, lean proteins, and nuts appear less frequently and in smaller amounts. Based on this, you can understand what the daily diet looks like. Volumes are not listed, as they are calculated individually, as well as total calories.
- Monday. Breakfast - protein omelet, green tea, rye bread. Lunch - 1/3 grapefruit. Lunch - vegetable broth, baked potatoes, greens. Dinner - steamed fish fillet and asparagus.
- Tuesday. Breakfast - oatmeal on water, cinnamon, any berries. Lunch - low-fat (1-5%) cottage cheese, honey. Lunch - steamed chicken meatballs, stewed cabbage. Dinner - a salad of red beans, cucumbers, tomatoes and dried rye bread slices.
- Wednesday. Breakfast - brown rice and baked pumpkin with honey. Lunch - fruit juice (fresh). Lunch - pea soup (without potatoes and meat), whole grain bread. Dinner - chicken breast in the oven with an orange.
- Thursday. Breakfast - tea, rice cakes. Lunch - steamed apricots and dried apricots. Lunch - buckwheat porridge with green beans and tomatoes. Dinner - low-fat cottage cheese, red grapes.
- Friday. Breakfast - oatmeal on water, banana. Lunch - 1/3 pomegranate. Lunch - baked celery roots, carrot-apple salad. Dinner - protein omelet with vegetables.
- Saturday. Breakfast - fruit salad, biscuits. Lunch - nuts. Lunch - lean beef in the oven, fresh cucumbers, greens. Dinner - low-fat cottage cheese, herbs, garlic, rye bread.
- Sunday. Breakfast - tea, oatmeal cookies. Lunch - plums, some berries. Lunch - wild rice, fresh carrots and corn. Dinner - pineapple, chicken breast without skin for a couple.
Summing up, it is worth noting that most often it is enough for a person to limit the consumption of high-fat products - confectionery, mayonnaise, sausages and sausages, convenience foods, egg yolks, butter and fatty meat - to prevent jumps of "bad" cholesterol. But even if its increase is diagnosed, remember that fats cannot be completely excluded, but it is important to pay attention to their quality and share in the daily diet.