Ringworm - a disease that has accompanied humanity since ancient times. Until the beginning of the last century, the process of therapy consisted in shaving hair in order to prevent the development of infection and in the application of healing agents - tar, sulfur, wax, tar. Let us examine, through the prism of our time, deprive of ringworm in a person: treatment, symptoms, ways of infection.
Ways of infection
Infection of the organism with dermatophyte fungi of the genus Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton is what causes ringworm in humans. In their vocabulary, physicians use such synonyms for the name of this disease as trichophytosis, dermatophytosis.
You can become infected with the disease after contact with a sick person or animal. People, mostly adults, can be carriers of the fungus without symptoms and spread it to others living in the same room with them. Children aged 4-14 years are most likely to develop ringworm, although the likelihood of infection in adults and toddlers cannot be excluded.
This disease is most common in urban areas, among people with low incomes, poor hygiene, as well as living in crowded neighborhoods and in warm, humid climates. Ringworm tends to be more severe in people with weakened immune systems.
Spores of the fungus can be transmitted through direct contact with the affected area, as well as through clothing and underwear. Therefore, if someone from close people suffers from an illness, then you just need to strictly follow the rules of personal hygiene, be careful and careful in everything.
The following factors predispose to the development of ringworm:
- changes in the skin as a result of prolonged exposure to water;
- reduced immunity due to illness, stress, depression;
- external influence, leading to violations of the skin.
What does this look like?
The diagnosis is preceded by a dermatologist examination. Next, be sure to laboratory research of scrapings obtained from the site of injury: hair, scales of the epidermis are considered. Detection of spore fungi will indicate a versicolor. Of great importance is the differentiation of trichophytia from other diseases with similar symptoms:
- chronic hair follicle disease caused by staphylococcal infection;
- medicinal dermatosis;
- diseases of the skin caused by fungi of another kind.
Superficial trichophytosis is manifested by the lesion of the skin with patches of mainly small size, which have a rounded shape, without the presence of pronounced inflammatory processes. On the head in the affected areas there is thinning of the hair, a change in their structure: loss of luster, brittleness, thinness and torsion on the tips of the stumps that project millimeters above the skin.
In the middle part of the skin is covered with scales. Smooth skin areas of the human body exposed to infection are determined by inflamed round spots with bubbles along the contour and scaling in the central part. Ringworm in a person on smooth skin can be seen in the photo below. At the initial stage, small foci appear, which tend to merge further.
Damage to the nail plates of ringworm is observed in children very rarely, and in adults - in 20-30% of cases.
Chronic ringworm course
Chronic form prevails in people with impaired blood circulation in peripheral vessels and with improper work of the sex glands. Pathology arises during puberty. It manifests itself mainly in girls who have suffered a superficial form of the disease and are not fully cured.
For this form of the disease is characterized by the observation of black spots, broken at the level of the skin of the hair, as well as small atrophic bald spots in the places of the lesion on the head, most often at the back of the head and temples. On smooth skin, in the area of the buttocks, knees, on the palms, soles, shins, less often elsewhere in the human body, there are foci depriving the pale coloration, covered with whitish scales. Fungus-prone nails are knobby, do not have a gloss, gray color.
This form is characterized by inflammation of the hair follicles in the area of the hairy part, followed by the formation of a lesion-infiltrate covered with crusts, which has pronounced boundaries, and when pressed, exudes thick purulent yellowish discharge. Over time, the size of lichen increases, it acquires tuberosity.
In medical science, such an infiltrate is called Celsus carion. Hair at the site of injury falls permanently. After treatment, scars remain. Characterized by an increase and tenderness of the lymph nodes, an increase in body temperature, a general negative state. Infection is zooanthroponotic nature.
How to beat ringworm?
Therapy after diagnosis and taking into account the clinical picture is prescribed by a dermatologist. Its action is aimed at suppressing fungal infections. The treatment can be both local with the use of ointments, creams, sprays, and involving the administration of oral antifungal drugs.
When treating lichen on smooth skin in the morning, the lesion site is treated with 2-5% alcoholic iodine solution, and Wilkinson Ointment is rubbed in the evening. In addition, it is possible to use such antifungal agents as:
- terbinafine drugs: "Zalain", "Lamisil" - up to 2 times a day during the week;
- "Clotrimazole", "Funginal" - 3 times a day for 4 weeks;
- "Batrafen", "Loceryl" - 2 times a day for 2 weeks.
With damage to the scalp, local therapy is prescribed with prior shaving of the hair, as well as ingestion of the "Griseofulvin" preparation. In the case of an infiltrative-suppurative form of the disease, epilation is carried out, the antimycotic Griseofulvin is taken, an abscess is opened and the wound is cleaned, and then treated with a fungicidal ointment.
When signs of ringworm appear, in no case should self-medicate. Diagnosis and therapy should be prescribed by a doctor. It is important to remember: antimycotics have a strong effect on the liver. Self and improper treatment will only aggravate the situation. Do not forget about prophylactic agents. Do not be ill!