Virtually anyone can experience dehydration. This disruption of the functioning of the body is dangerous because it can end up with a coma and even death. Therefore, it is important to know the symptoms of this condition and how to behave when it is conducted. It should be noted that with certain body reactions only a competent doctor can help a person.
Water in our body is contained both in the cells themselves and beyond. It also contains sodium and potassium (electrolytes), which are involved in the most important processes. In fact, dehydration begins with the excessive removal of fluid from cells and tissues. As a result, the amount of electrolytes also decreases. As a result, there is a violation of the functioning of the tissues of our body. First of all, it is connected with the fact that cells literally "shrink". The brain suffers especially from dehydration.
All causes of dehydration are reduced to the fact that the water-salt balance is disturbed. Such a violation occurs when overheating, high temperature, poisoning. Most often, dehydration accompanies colds, occurring with fever. The reason is simple - the body is trying to reduce the heat, sweating hard. As a result, a lot of water is released in the form of sweat. Dehydration is possible in the hot season. It proceeds in a similar way - water “leaves” through sweat during physical activity.
A separate discussion deserves the occurrence of dehydration in acute food poisoning. Often, the body removes toxic substances through vomiting. Also, patients develop diarrhea. All this again leads to a violation of the water-salt balance.
How to determine the signs of dehydration?
Many believe that the main sign of dehydration is the thirst of a person. This is not entirely true. This symptom can be confused with some other health problems. It is not the main one. The following general signs of dehydration are distinguished:
- Excretion of a small amount of urine and its rich color
- Pressure drop
- Cool limbs, "marble" skin on the hands and feet
- Pallor, pointy features, bruises under the eyes
- General weakness and dry mouth
Of these signs, the most important for an adult is rare urination. If the patient went to the toilet for the last time more than 12 hours ago, then the probability of a lack of fluid in the body is high.
Dehydration in a child: symptoms
In fact, the symptoms of dehydration in young children differ little from what happens to adults. It is worth noting that the main sign of impaired water-salt balance in the body in babies is rare urination. If you suspect dehydration, then you should immediately check the diaper. Dry for 6 hours, the diaper is more likely to indicate a lack of fluid in the body. Another indicator is that the baby produces urination less than 6 times a day.
If we are talking about a baby, then you may notice that he has become less mobile. During dehydration, the baby's lips become cool and sticky. The baby also has dark circles under the eyes, the limbs become cold. Sometimes children cry like without tears. You may also notice rapid breathing caused by an increase in heart rate.
The most important treatment for dehydration is constant drinking. It is better to give the patient ordinary water. In some severe cases, it is useful to know exactly how to apply water to restore balance. As was said earlier, electrolytes, sodium and potassium, are also excreted from the human body along with the liquid. Especially important is the presence in the tissues of the first, because It is necessary for the transfer of fluid to the cells. In turn, this requires glucose. Therefore, special solutions were created to eliminate dehydration.
The consequences of dehydration are tragic. Therefore, when vomiting, diarrhea and high temperature should call an ambulance! Saline solutions and sodium chloride will be prescribed to the patient. Then you need to pass tests. Usually dehydration shows a general blood test. Also in parallel with diarrhea, special agents may be prescribed. In severe cases, patients with dehydration are placed in the hospital. In this case, the main treatment in medical institutions is infusion therapy - the patient is given a course of droppers.
A little different treatment of dehydration occurs in young children. Again, simple water can normalize the condition. Also, the baby should be hard to breastfeed. In other cases, the nutrient mixture is diluted with water. If the baby had vomiting, then after its termination it should be given to the child every 30 minutes. small amount of water or electrolyte solution. Then you have to wait. If vomiting has not resumed, the amount of water is increased to 50 ml. You can then use the mixture or milk. They are diluted with water. The amount of fluid is about 80-100 ml. The baby can return to the usual diet only after 12-24 hours.
In addition to treatment, it is very important to pay special attention to the prevention of dehydration. Most modern people treat this question too carelessly. The reason is simple - they believe that the violation of water-salt balance occurs only in extraordinary cases such as heat stroke, fever, poisoning.
Modern doctors have long established that many of us live in a state of asymptomatic dehydration. You may not experience intense thirst, but the amount of fluid in the cells will be insufficient. You may not notice all the other symptoms of dehydration - loss of skin elasticity, abdominal distention, headaches. All that is needed in this situation is to drink water regularly.
It is worth noting that there is a myth that it is necessary to drink about 2 liters of water a day. In fact, these findings have not been confirmed by research. At the same time, in 2004, in one of the American scientific academies, it was found that women need to drink 2.7 per day for men and 3.7 l for men. water. At the same time, researchers emphasized that this amount of liquid is common - this is water, and soups, and juices, and tea, drunk during the day.
Prevention of dehydration is to comply with safety regulations in the summer and on vacation. You can not be in the sun without a headdress, it is better to choose a shadow. It is also worth constantly drinking liquid. This is especially true of young children and the elderly. Kids should drink 50 ml of water every half hour.
It is necessary to understand that the usual observance of the rules of hygiene and control of food can prevent dehydration. Dirty hands and food of inadequate quality in most cases lead to diarrhea. And she, as mentioned above, provokes dehydration.
Dehydration leads to disruption of the functioning of body systems. It can lead to especially pitiable consequences in children and the elderly. Therefore, it is important to know the symptoms of dehydration. These include rare urination and darkening of the urine, dry mouth, low blood pressure, circles under the eyes, pallor and cold to the touch of the limbs.