In chronic diseases of the urethra or bladder, the doctor may have difficulty making a diagnosis. In this case, cystoscopy comes to the rescue - the procedure is not too pleasant for the patient, but informative for the doctor. Conducting research is possible in both adults and children. What does it constitute and what kind of feedback is left about it?
What is cystoscopy?
Cystoscopy is an endoscopic procedure for the purpose of examining and analyzing the state of the inner walls of the organs of the urinary system. Manipulations are performed using a cystoscope placed in the urethra, and then directly into the bladder. The device is a long tube with a complex optical device, thanks to which it is possible to record various changes in the state of the walls and diseases of the bladder.
The cystoscopy procedure exists in three varieties.
- Rigid. It is performed under local anesthesia and is used for biopsy. With its help, you can remove the affected areas of the body.
- Flexible. Anesthesia is injected directly into the urethra, and the patient is awake during the manipulation. However, if you need to remove the affected part of the organ or perform a biopsy, you will have to do cystoscopy again using general anesthesia.
- Fibrocystoscopy. It is performed under general anesthesia and is used not only for examination, but also for surgical operations.
When is cystoscopy prescribed?
Conditions for the passage of bladder cystoscopy in women and men can be many:
- purulent or bleeding in the urine (hematuria or pyuria);
- frequent urge to empty the bladder;
- urinary tract infections;
- regular pelvic pain;
- urolithiasis disease;
- chronic cystitis;
- abnormal cells in urine;
- polyps, tumors in the urethra or bladder, detected by ultrasound, magnetic resonance or computed tomography;
- urinary retention during inflammatory processes in the prostate gland or due to narrowing of the urinary canal.
Also cystoscopy can be used for medicinal purposes:
- stone removal;
- elimination of tumors and polyps;
- stopping bleeding;
- removal of obstruction.
Cystoscopy is contraindicated if:
- exacerbation of inflammation in the bladder: urethritis or cystitis;
- kidney and liver disease;
- diseases of the heart and blood vessels, myocardial infarction;
- pregnancy (the walls of the bladder are close to the uterus and if the cystoscope is inadvertently inserted, the walls of the genital organ can be damaged).
In this case, patients are assigned sparing ultrasound examinations or excretory urography.
The preparatory process before surgery requires strict adherence to the recommendations of doctors.
- Refrain from eating on the day of the study if cystoscopy is performed with anesthesia.
- Do not empty your bladder for an hour.
- Refuse to take drugs, in particular painkillers, anticoagulants, aspirin, insulin, drugs for the treatment of arthritis.
- You may need to pass a urine test.
Before starting the procedure, the doctor is obliged to inform the patient about the possible consequences of cystoscopy. This study belongs to the category of invasive and sometimes leads to undesirable consequences:
- bladder infection;
- the development of cystitis;
- the appearance of blood in the urine;
- damage to the urethra;
- perforation (puncture of the walls of the bladder, followed by the expiration of urine beyond its limits).
However, with qualified surgery, the risk of complications is minimal. Upon completion of the instruction by the doctor, the patient signs a special form, thereby confirming the agreement to the procedure.
Cystoscopy takes place in the urologist's office, cystoscopic office or in the hospital, depending on the complexity of the operation. The study involved several medical professionals:
- pathologist (if you need a biopsy).
The procedure for conducting cystoscopy of the bladder in women and men is as follows:
- The patient sits on the chair, slightly raising and bending his legs.
- The doctor treats the genital area with antiseptic preparations.
- The cystoscope is smeared with sterile glycerin before use.
- The device is introduced first into the urethra and then into the bladder.
- The bladder is emptied and filled with fluid (150-200 ml) so that the doctor can examine the walls of the organ. Before the examination, the bladder cavity may be washed with furatsilina solution.
- Mandrin is removed from the instrument and the optical system is inserted instead.
- The doctor delivers the electric current and proceeds to the examination, rotating the cystoscope clockwise.
- If necessary, treatment during cystoscopy can be used other tools or taken samples for research.
The duration of the procedure depends on the type of device and the disease and ranges from 15 minutes to 1 hour. For example, for ureteral catheterization, cystoscopy will take about an hour, while for a routine examination, 10-15 minutes is sufficient. Much will depend on the qualifications of the doctor.
After the procedure, the patient may remain for some time in the hospital. It is forbidden to drive or start a professional activity on the day of inspection. The doctor may recommend drinking more liquid to eliminate the burning sensation and dilute the urine, prescribe the use of painkillers or drugs that reduce the acidity of urine. There are no dietary restrictions. Useful will be a warm bath to relieve discomfort.
After cystoscopy, the patient may observe unpleasant symptoms:
- frequent urination;
- pain in the pelvis and lower back;
- blood in the urine;
- burning sensation when emptying the bladder.
If the symptoms are very disturbing and do not disappear within 24 hours, you should consult a doctor.
Thus, cytoscopy is a modern, informative, but far from comfortable examination of the organs of the urinary system. The patient should agree on it only as a last resort, when other types of research are powerless. It is important to entrust yourself to a qualified specialist, with whom you will be calm for your health.