By its characteristics, cystic fibrous mastopathy is a benign disease, in which the balance between the proportion of epithelial and connective tissue in the mammary glands, as well as changes in the structure of these tissues, is disturbed, which often leads to the formation of seals that can be felt in the final stages of the disease.
Background to the appearance of the disease and its general description
Official medicine divides the cystic-fibrous mastopathy according to several factors, but the most common method is classified according to the diffuse and nodular type.
- Diffuse type of increase in the glandular component is characteristic of women after 30 years, while accompanied by the appearance of small cysts in large quantities. All seals, palpable during examination, have pronounced boundaries.
- Diffuse type of increase in the fibrous component is usually characterized by strong pain, narrowing of the milk ducts and inflammatory processes in the connective tissue, which cause pain.
- Diffuse type of increase in the cystic component occurs in women after 35 years, the seals are pliable, but clear, large.
- Nodular type is determined by palpation due to small and vague formations.
Any of these forms can be non-proliferating and proliferating in nature, while the latter is the most dangerous because it speaks of excessive cell division, which leads to the appearance of higher severity of malignant tumors.
The main "provocateurs" of development of fibrous breast mastopathy are hormones of the ovaries and thyroid gland. Studies have shown that in the menopause in women there was no further formation of new cysts and nodes, since the ovaries were no longer functioning properly. However, women who are at the climacteric stage are not excluded from the risk group. However, there are more serious prerequisites for the emergence of this disease:
- Overweight due to elevated blood sugar or lipid metabolism: consequently, the presence of diabetes in chronic diseases.
- Lack of generic practice up to 30 years
- No lactation
- Infertility due to lack of ovulation in the 1st phase of the cycle
- The presence of uterine bleeding due to functional disorders
- Uterine fibroids, endometriosis and ovarian cysts
In general, there is no doubt that the main cause of the onset and development of cystic-fibrous mastopathy are disorders in the hormonal background, characterized by an increase in the number of estrogens and prolactin, and a decrease in progesterone. As proof of this statement, there have been documented cases of the progress of mastopathy in women who have been on hormone therapy, as well as a reduction in the risk of diseases in those who have taken oral contraceptives of the combined type that restrain estrogen levels.
- Experts pay attention to the fact that hormonal disorders are not always preceded by problems of the menstrual cycle and the reproductive system as a whole: pathologies in any area of endocrinology and liver disease cannot be ruled out.
- The natural increase of prolactin, characteristic of pregnancy and lactation, on the contrary, reduces the chances of mastopathy, therefore, this hormone is taken into account only in pathologies of the pituitary gland.
It is possible to establish the diagnosis of cystic fibrous mastopathy even after the completion of the primary formation of a woman’s body, i.e. in adolescence when it is recommended to begin monthly checks. However, the main age block is from 30 to 45-50 years, i.e. before the climacteric period.
Diagnosis and symptoms of cystic fibrous mastopathy
To date, this diagnosis is given to every 3rd woman, but is he always justified? And do all the fair sex go to the doctor on time? It is important to independently recognize the signs that can indicate the emergence and development of cystic-fibrous mastopathy, since not paying enough time to it can be a prerequisite to the formation of more serious problems of cancer. When do I need to see a doctor?
- A feeling of discomfort in the chest, accompanied by heaviness, as well as pain during the period of the onset of menstruation and shortly before it. In this case, the pain can be both rare and acute, and aching long.
- Before the start of menstruation, the chest coarsens, acquires uneven seals over the entire surface.
- The sensitivity of the nervous system increases - they pursue depression, fatigue, irritability, causeless anxiety, panic.
All this refers to the primary symptoms indicating cystic fibrotic mastopathy, but not giving a 100% guarantee in it. It is likely that these are signs of a different disease, but it is worth taking referral to a specialist only for them. If the expectation of "development" is delayed, additional symptoms may appear.
- Chest pain becomes constant, does not depend on the menstrual cycle and almost never subsides. Any touches reinforce this unpleasant feeling, a halo of pain can go to the armpit area, scapula, forearm.
- The severity of the chest becomes distinct, while the mammary glands themselves may slightly increase in size.
- Seals increase in size, clearly visible on palpation.
- From the nipples appear discharge, visually similar to colostrum, becoming more abundant before the start of the menstrual cycle. At the same time, the first discharge is colorless, transparent, but with time and increasing severity of the disease darken to a beige-brown, and even greenish hue.
Even if only the primary symptoms are observed, it is important to conduct a home inspection: before the new menstrual cycle, palpation of the mammary glands, up to the axillary hollows, checking them for uneven compaction and painful sensations. You can also check for the presence of discharge from the nipples. Further diagnostics will be carried out by a specialist.
- Medical history, palpation and examination of the breast in several states: relaxed, with arms raised, in the supine position.
- Check through ultrasound, mammography, tomograph. A biopsy or puncture is possible.
- Testing for hormones of the thyroid gland and ovaries, as the main reasons for the development of mastopathy.
Doctors warn that it is necessary to pass the test at the beginning of the menstrual cycle (6-12 days), as well as with good health, so as not to increase the risk of making a false diagnosis.
Regardless of the form, degree and other points indicated at the time of diagnosis, treatment of cystic fibrous mastopathy is not complete without changing the diet. Even if the doctor prescribes a particularly effective drug that promises to immediately deal with the problem, the elimination of the primary cause will be incomplete if the diet is not followed, the purpose of which is to reduce the production of female sex hormones.
- Elimination of tea, caffeine and cocoa from the diet, while any derivatives (such as chocolate) are also unacceptable. Theobromine is also not allowed.
- The proportion of fat decreases in accordance with the recommendations of the doctor, but the general parameter is 50-70 g per day for an adult. Consequently, foods with saturated fats (mayonnaise, butter, etc.) are excluded.
- Refusal of wheat flour of the highest grade and products containing it, as well as semolina as its derivative.
- Salty dishes and products, canned, fried, smoked are unacceptable. Sparkling water and pastry.
- With caution used cabbage, as a product that promotes the binding of iodine.
- The menu should be based on legumes, sources of iodine and selenium, nuts and seeds rich in fiber, beets, spinach and broccoli, sources of calcium, white and green tea.
- Additionally, it is recommended to take vitamins A and E, since they almost will not come with this diet, as well as vitamins of group B.
If we talk about other non-hormonal methods of treatment of cystic-fibrous mastopathy, among them the following deserve attention:
- Immunostimulating drugs
- Anti-inflammatory nonsteroids that reduce tumor growth
- Neuroleptics and sedatives
- Exercise, walking, changing sleep and wakefulness, reducing the proportion of stress and other psychological stress.
- Herbal Fees
Drug treatment should be prescribed by a doctor on the basis of a number of nuances in the diagnosis. Thus, nodular type mastopathy most often requires surgical intervention, during which the nodules are dissected.
- Hormonal treatment of cystic-fibrous mastopathy can be carried out with the help of natural progesterone or synthetic progestogens, as well as androgens (for people over 45 years of age) and means that suppress the production of prolactin. Means can have both an external method of application, and internal.
- Among the medications most commonly used for the treatment of cystic-fibrous mastopathy, Mastodinone, which lowers the level of prolactin, Cyclodinone, Indomethacin, is noted. The course of treatment is always long.
In order to resort to hormonal drugs subsequently it was not necessary, it was recommended, to the extent possible, to carry out prophylaxis through the intake of combined contraceptives and through natural breastfeeding (for young mothers). And, of course, the sooner you establish the fact of the disease, the easier it will be to eliminate it.