Complex carbohydrates

If you begin to study the basic parameters of any food product, you can see that, in addition to the energy value, there are 3 qualitative components: proteins, fats and carbohydrates, the proportion of which is indicated next to the caloric content. Depending on which of them prevails, the product is attributed respectively to one of the groups.

But if there are no questions with fats, proteins are perceived as an important building material, then the role of carbohydrates and their division into simple and complex ones is far from clear to everyone. How not to get lost in the abundance of information?

Why does the body need carbohydrates?

The base of healthy nutrition why the body needs carbohydrates

A variety of "instant" diets offer to exclude from the diet, not fats or proteins, namely carbohydrates, explaining that they - the sources of sugar - are dangerous for the figure. However, this proposition is fundamentally wrong: first of all carbohydrates are the main source of energy, like proteins are the building material, and fats are cholesterol regulators and fighters for strong blood vessels and a healthy heart.

  • Chemical content of carbohydrates - oxygen, carbon and hydrogen, i.e. gases passing into the water at the connection. But if they were just plain water, it would hardly be possible that so many disputes would flare up around their properties and role in the human body. The whole problem is that carbohydrates are sugars, sources of glucose. And it, as we know, is the most preferable element in the maintenance of energy and efficiency of the brain.

At the same time, it is glucose that is called the enemy, forcing blood sugar levels to jump, causing related diseases, metabolic disorders and, of course, loss of harmony, of which both women and men are worried. But here you should immediately pay attention to the fact that glucose is harmful, which provokes a quick sugar jump, and only with its frequent use. Its impact is assessed according to the glycemic index - an indicator that allows you to set the rate of carbohydrate breakdown. Pure glucose has a GI of 100 units, and the smaller this number, the weaker the insulin jump.

  • The rate of increase in blood sugar levels after a meal does not depend only on the chemical composition of the food: even complex carbohydrates with a low glycemic index can become dangerous after a certain heat treatment.
  • Why are carbohydrate foods so "heavy" in terms of energy value? Because of its composition based on glucose. 1 g of carbohydrates corresponds to 4 kcal, which must be remembered by those who consider not only the daily calories, but also the percentage of BJU.

It is important to understand that carbohydrates are present absolutely in any food product, unlike fats or proteins, therefore, when it comes to a "carbohydrate-free" diet, this means the elimination of fast (simple) carbohydrates, but not the use of special products with a zero indicator.

Simple and complex carbohydrates - what are the differences?

The difference between simple and complex carbohydrates

As already mentioned, carbohydrates are sugars, and the degree of their benefits varies depending on how many molecules are present in a particular product.

  • If there are only 1-2 of them, these are simple (fast) carbohydrates, which can be based on not only glucose, but also lactose, sucrose, fructose. They have the highest splitting rate and therefore almost instantly end up in the blood, thereby contributing to the release of energy, which also quickly fades. These products have a high glycemic index and are considered undesirable for daily use.

In this group, separation into monosaccharides (1 molecule) and disaccharides (2 molecules) is assumed: the latter are lactose contained in dairy products, as well as maltose and sucrose - the classic sugar that combines fructose and glucose. These components are often included in sports drinks and nutrition, since after consumption they pass into liver glycogens. A person who is subjected to constant physical exertion should have at least 400 g of glucose daily in their diet.

  • The list of products of simple carbohydrates opens table sugar, carbonated drinks and alcohol, as the most "dangerous" elements with the highest GI. This also includes white bread and confectionery, ice cream, chocolate (both dark and milk), honey, and dates. It is noteworthy that the rate of carbohydrate splitting increases in boiled carrots, as well as rye bread.

It is worth noting that blindly avoiding simple carbohydrates is not worth it: at some point they may turn out to be much more useful than complex ones. In particular, the fall of sugar (up to its complete combustion), referred to as hypoglycemia, belongs to the category of pathological conditions that are dangerous both in situational occurrence and in chronic course. Long-term zeroing of sugar can lead to hypoglycemic coma, and episodic seizures are usually characterized by reactions on the part of vegetatics: tremor, pallor, deterioration of blood circulation in the extremities, nausea, tachycardia, muscle weakness. For an urgent rise in sugar in such a situation, it is necessary products with high GI - simple carbohydrates; complex will not give the desired effect.

  • Carbohydrates consisting of 3 or more molecules that form long chains are called complex or polysaccharides. Their basis is starch, glycogen and fiber. The latter is considered an element that is not digested, and therefore only partially absorbed, provides a long-term feeling of a full stomach (not gravity!), Improves digestion, and cleanses the body of "bad" cholesterol. Glycogen, which muscles need, is mainly required during physical exertion.

Slow carbohydrates are characterized by GI values ​​of 69 and below; The protein group has the lowest index - it is fish and meat. In the presence of physical activity, such products should be consumed 1.5-2 hours before training, which is relevant not only for athletes, but also for those who are in the process of fighting for a beautiful figure.

Table of complex carbohydrates in ordinary foods

Since all products contain carbohydrates in one quantity or another, and the difference is only in the ratio of BJU, it is assumed that everything belongs to this category, with the exception of meat, fish, seafood and cottage cheese. It is noteworthy that semolina is the only of all cereals, belonging to the group of "empty" carbohydrates, because it does not contain polysaccharides.

  • As for potatoes, corn and bananas - the main sources of starch, about which nutritionists argue a lot, these products are related to slow carbohydrates, but there are several nuances: during cooking, potatoes hydrolyze, which leads to its conversion into glucose, which means devalues ​​him. Bananas and corn in a thermally processed form have a high level of sugar.

We offer you a table of complex carbohydrates. The list of foods with a low glycemic index, given in it, for all supporters of a healthy diet should be a plan for drawing up a daily diet.

Name

Gi

Name

Gi

Beans, Green Peas

35

Wild rice

35

Pomegranate, Nectarine, Apple, Plum

35

Pasta

35

Mandarin, grapefruit, pear

thirty

String beans, chickpeas

thirty

Carrots, Tomatoes

thirty

Natural Marmalade

-

thirty

Soy, almond, oat milk

thirty

Milk and natural cottage cheese

thirty

Raspberry, red currant, blueberry, cherry, strawberry, blackberry, gooseberry,

25

Barley, green lentils, dry peas

25

Pumpkin seeds, chopped hazelnuts, almonds, peanuts

25

Eggplant, artichoke, lemon

20

Soy products

20

Almond flour and hazelnut

20

Asparagus, broccoli, celery stalks, cabbage, cucumber, zucchini, sweet peppers

15

Radish, onion, spinach, fennel, sorrel, physalis, rhubarb, leaf lettuce

15

Mushrooms, olives

15

Almonds, peanuts, wheat germ, cashews, pistachios, pine nuts, bran

15

The bulk of products with low (from 40 units) GI are proteins. Complex carbohydrates can have any value from 69 units. At the same time, experts advise to take into account that not all products with a low splitting rate belong to slow carbohydrates. For example, vinegar and spices, whose value - 5 units. To indicate the element belonging to this category, the basis of the chemical composition should be polysaccharides: cellulose, starch, glycogens, pectin.

Complex carbohydrates: what can you eat while losing weight?

Complex carbohydrates for weight loss that you can eat

Thus, the question arises about the proper distribution of all types of carbohydrates in the daily diet. Especially if you want to lose weight by eliminating fat mass, which, as you know, affects the level of sugar. However, is it worth refusing food at all with a high splitting rate, or is it necessary to select components for the menu for the day differently?

  • When losing weight, the list of products from complex carbohydrates should include cereals: their GI is close to high (oatmeal, rice - 65, buckwheat - 60), but they give a long feeling of saturation, as well as debug the process of digestion and stimulate the brain. You can not refuse them completely, even if you are very afraid of those extra pounds. It is enough just to keep the rate of 100 grams of dry cereal per day: this is a total number, and therefore you can cook oatmeal in the morning, have rice in the afternoon, but so that they do not exceed the allowable amount.
  • Pasta is also allowed, but it must be made from durum wheat and not have foreign ingredients.
  • Vegetables, greens, mushrooms, as one could see from the above table of complex carbohydrates with a low glycemic index, are absolutely safe and allowed to be consumed at any time of the day. Fruits, as sources of glucose, it is desirable to leave for the morning meal or snack, while often pay attention to those that have a low sugar content - citrus fruits, apples, kiwi.
  • In addition to eating slimming, you need to know how to do it. In particular, simple carbohydrates are allowed (and even necessary) in the amount of 100 g after exercise to speed up the muscle recovery process (i.e. they are a source of glycogen). Difficult it is required to use before training (for 1,5-2 hours), and also in the morning.

The importance of carbohydrates in the state of the human body is more than significant, as a result of which it is impossible to completely abandon them, even fast ones. However, in daily consumption, it is desirable to leave only slow ones, the share of which should be at least 45% and not more than 65% of the total volume of food.

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