Every adult had to be treated with antibiotics at least once in his life. But the units had previously been analyzed to find out exactly which bacterium caused the disease. How can a doctor choose the most effective from a variety of antibacterial agents? The answer is simple: broad-spectrum antibiotics come to the aid of a new generation. The list of such drugs today has about 200 drugs. What are their advantages and disadvantages?
The era of antibiotics: drugs that have no alternative
Without exaggeration, they can be called medicines that save lives, and the most important gift for humanity. Antibiotics and their amazing ability to destroy pathogenic bacteria were discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928. Mass production of these drugs began 15 years later and allowed to cure diseases that had taken thousands of lives before.
Antibiotics are substances of different origin, but they can all have a detrimental effect on microorganisms. Some drugs have a specific effect only on a certain type of bacteria, that is, they have a narrow spectrum of action. Others can be called real "killers": they are able to destroy almost any bacteria. These drugs are called broad-spectrum antibiotics (ABS).
The enemy is not identified, but defeated: how are the ABSs operating?
The first antibiotic, penicillin, was isolated from green mold. Then other natural medicines were discovered. But the man did not rely only on the mercy of nature and learned to synthesize such substances by chemical means. This was a huge breakthrough in science and medicine.
Over time, scientists have found ways to get antibiotics, which had the desired qualities, began to change the concentration of components, to vary the form of release - to produce in the form of injections, tablets, ointments, candles. Finally, universal preparations were obtained that could overcome various bacteria. This saved the patients from the need to do the sowing before each appointment to find out which means would be able to defeat the pathogen. These are broad-spectrum antibiotics.
Advantages of the latest universal antibiotics
Today, four generations of antibacterial agents are used. Each new line of drugs is more sophisticated and destroys more pathogens.
What are the main advantages of broad-spectrum antibiotics of the new generation? The list of indicators by which they surpass their predecessors is quite wide:
- increased spectrum of action;
- eliminating the need to identify the pathogen that allows for faster treatment;
- cause minimal damage to the body;
- side effects are much less common;
- taking such drugs is much more convenient. If I use drug I generation, then to obtain the desired effect is required to take it 4 times a day, and if treated with an IV generation antibiotic, then 1 tablet will suffice;
- they are able to destroy the bacterial focus as much as possible, therefore recovery occurs much faster;
- The latest antibiotics provide a higher therapeutic effect, allow to achieve full recovery even in severe diseases.
What disadvantages do multifunctional antibiotics have?
Whatever innovative technologies are used in the pharmaceutical industry, it is impossible to create a medicine that will be absolutely harmless. ABS also have disadvantages. Unwanted effects can most often be triggered by a broad-spectrum antibiotic in children.
What are the drawbacks of the ABCS?
- taking such drugs by children up to a year can cause them to develop childhood asthma;
- the treatment of ABS, can form the resistance of bacteria to other drugs;
- prolonged use may cause side effects that do not go away after drug withdrawal. An example would be the development of complete deafness in the treatment of streptomycin. The use of large doses of penicillin has a toxic effect on the central nervous system;
- Abshs can cause sensitization of the body. In this case, the infectious process is exacerbated, a relapse of the disease occurs, superinfection may develop (an infection caused by several types of bacteria), and allergic reactions appear.
When the "double strike" tactic is needed: the use of ABS
There are many situations where broad-spectrum antibiotics are simply indispensable. When is this treatment especially indicated?-
- if the symptoms do not make it possible to make an accurate diagnosis, and it is impossible to delay treatment (waiting for the identification of the causative bacterium), since this can lead to an exacerbation of a serious illness or death of the patient. An example is meningitis. With this disease, the patient's condition worsens so quickly that only the prescription of AHS can help him;
- when it is necessary to destroy bacteria that are not amenable to other drugs and antibiotics;
- if the disease is caused by superinfection. Acceptance of several antibiotics, each of which selectively affects a certain type of microorganism, is a less rational method of treatment than using a single ABS.
Abshs is powerless against viruses, their purpose is bacteria, so they never prescribe antibiotics for the flu. They will not only be useless, but also create an additional load on the gastrointestinal tract.
The most powerful and effective ABShS of the new (fourth generation) - list
The most sought-after and effective representatives of the 4th generation of the AAS are such drugs:
- cephalosporins: Maxipim, Cefepime, Cefotaxime, Cefoperazone, Ceftazidime, Ceftriaxone. With the help of these drugs, it is possible to defeat the causative agents of such diseases as gonorrhea, pyelonephritis, complicated ARVI, severe damage to the ENT organs;
- penicillins. The most well-known drugs are Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Sulbactam, Clavulanate. They are used as the main treatment for dermatological diseases (including purulent lesions of soft tissues), STIs (gonorrhea, syphilis). Their advantages are low toxicity and the ability to destroy particularly resistant bacteria. Despite their powerful effects, they rarely cause side effects;
- carbapenems. They are prescribed, if necessary to defeat persistent infection, which is caused by enterobacteria and anaerobes. The best representatives of such APS are Meropenem, Tienam, Ertapenem, Imipinem Cilastatin;
- fluoroquinolones. The fourth generation of such antibiotics successfully fights infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract and the urogenital system. They have a detrimental effect on the blue of the pus. The most well-known broad-spectrum antibiotics in tablets from this group are Levofloxacin, Moxifloxacin, Norfloxacin, Sparfloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Gatifloxacin;
- nitrofurans. Nitrofurantoin, furazidin used to treat uncomplicated forms of urinary tract infections, trichomoniasis and giardiasis.
What antibiotics can and cannot be taken while pregnant?
In pregnancy, it is better to refuse such aggressive drugs as antibiotics. If their use is still necessary, only a doctor should prescribe the drug! Here is a list of the new (IV) generation of drugs, which can be taken by pregnant women:
- from penicillins: Amoxiclav, Amoxicillin, Ampicillin (shots and tablets);
- cephalosporins: injection - Cefepime, Ceftriaxone, Cefazolin, antibiotics in tablets - Supraks. They are prescribed if bacteria that are resistant to penicillin caused the infection;
- broad-spectrum antibiotics in tablets: Erythromycin, Rovamycin, Vilparen. Used in infectious inflammatory processes of the genitourinary system;
- Furadonin. It is used only in the II trimester to get rid of cystitis;
- Trichopol, Metronidazole, Flagyl is prescribed in the second and third trimester, if a pregnant woman has sexually transmitted diseases;
- Summamed (nitrolide). It is indicated for the treatment of bronchitis, SARS, tracheitis, otitis, sinusitis, cystitis, urethritis and gastrointestinal infections.
It is strictly forbidden for women to use tetracycline, doxycycline, nolicin, furamag, levomycetin, biseptol. This can cause serious fetal abnormalities.
Treat, but do no harm: antibiotic therapy for children
The doctor prescribes antibiotics for small patients if the body cannot cope with the disease caused by bacteria (angina, pneumonia, tonsillitis, otitis, sinusitis, pyelonephritis, etc.).
Taking into account the illness and condition of the child, the pediatrician may prescribe such TENS as Amoxicillin (Flemoxin Soluteb), Amoxiclav (Augmentin), Cefalexin (Zinnat Supraks), Summamed (not assigned to the newborn), Nifuroksazid.
For children, antibiotics are available in special dosage forms. These are syrups, suspensions and soluble tablets.
Broad-spectrum antibiotics are another step towards conquering diseases. But the point in the creation of such drugs has not yet been set, pharmacists continue to create new, safer and more effective drugs.
Summing up, it is worth remembering the words of Hippocrates, who said: "All medicines are poison, only dose is used as medicines." If antibiotics are used correctly and strictly for the intended purpose, they will help restore health. But such strong drugs do not forgive the mindless treatment. Improper use can cause severe and even incurable diseases!