Fibroadenoma is a benign lesion of the breast. Such a tumor has a glandular origin. It is a product of hyperplastic processes, not a true neoplasm. Breast fibroadenoma - to remove or not? This choice is often faced by physicians and patients.
Benign breast neoplasm
Fibroadenoma is a tumor formation in which the prevalence of unformed connective tissue - the stroma - is observed. Neoplasms are usually smooth, mobile, painless and elastic in consistency. Some breast lesions have similar characteristics, which increases the requirements for their diagnosis.
Thus, it is found that neoplasms, which are erroneously diagnosed by palpation as fibroadenomas, are determined by histological examination as another benign form of the disease of the mammary gland, cystic fibrosis.
The main percentage of cases of detection of such tumors accounts for 20-30 years, although there may be tumors in older age. Doctors distinguish their two types:
- mature - they have a decorated capsule and a dense structure, as well as a small growth dynamics or do not increase at all;
- immature - with progressive growth, soft consistency.
Immature fibroadenomas appear in adolescent girls who are in the period of sexual formation, and sometimes after the settlement of the menstruation cycle. They can go on their own without any therapy.
In terms of histology, fibroadenomas are divided into three types:
Basically, fibroadenoma is a single tumor of the gland. But not so rarely appear multiple tumors with localization in both breasts. From 10 to 16% of women with tumors of this type have from two to four seals in one breast. Usually in such cases, this pathology is inherited.
Causes and symptoms of the appearance of the disease
The causes of the appearance and development of breast fibroadenomas have not been precisely established. There is no specific data on the prevalence of neoplasms in the general mass of people. The tumor is most often detected by chance during a medical examination or independently.
As a rule, the neoplasm is presented as a subcutaneous discrete single breast mass from 1 to 2 cm, and in the largest dimension - up to 5 cm. Despite the fact that tumors can occur anywhere on the breast, in most cases they are defined in the upper outer quadrant. Fibroadenoma is characterized as a displaceable, tightly elastic, visually detectable mass.
When detecting breast fibroadenomas and understanding what it is, the question is inevitable how to treat it. Since the tumor has a benign nature, it can be argued that there is no need for its removal, and to expect spontaneous regression. In these cases, conservative control is justified. But not all women can be subject to it. The following factors are taken into account:
- age of the patient;
- the hereditary nature of the malignancy, as well as data on proliferative changes in the breast from previous biopsies.
The process of treating a tumor from the tactical side is determined by its two main properties:
- the tumor does not respond to conservative treatment;
- from fibroadenomas to rebirth into a malignant form, only the leaf-shaped type has the ability - in 10% it turns into sarcoma.
Given the above, when deciding whether to remove breast fibroadenoma, the following is taken into account:
- direct indication when determining the leaf type of a tumor;
- dimensions greater than 2 cm or a manifest cosmetic defect is the possibility of surgical treatment;
- progressive neoplasia growth;
- woman's desire to remove fibroadenoma.
Leading medical institutions use two approaches to treating this type of tumor in women younger and older than 35 years. In the case of young age, conservative management is recommended, followed by examination to identify changes every six months. When observing tumor degradation, control continues until complete regression.
Fibroadenomas that have not completed the recession process or remain unchanged until the age of 35 are removed. Tumors showing developmental progress should be subjected to surgical treatment without delay. In the case of poor heredity for breast cancer after a diagnosis, a biopsy is necessary. If fibroadenomas are detected in women over 35, the observation period of 6-12 months is justified. At the end of the year, any persistent neoplasms of this type must be removed.
The accuracy of diagnosis plays a big role, however, as with any other diseases. In the case of breast fibroadenoma apply:
- examination and palpation;
- ultrasound examination of the gland;
- fine needle biopsy.
With a conservative treatment option, many women end up preferring an excisional biopsy — a fence for examining the entire neoplasm. Also this type of diagnosis is recommended for tumors in the absence of a clear diagnosis.
Summing up, it is necessary to reiterate the importance of timely detection of fibroadenoma and the need for preventive examinations. In the case of an accurate diagnosis by a doctor, a practical algorithm for managing the neoplasm should be selected. Health to you!