Brain hemorrhage is a so-called hemorrhagic stroke. Recently, this disease is increasingly spread. The consequences of a lesion, especially an extensive one, can be extremely serious and even fatal.
The main causes of cerebral hemorrhage are:
- Chronic increase in blood pressure, especially in the absence of proper treatment;
- Vascular enlargement, both congenital and acquired;
- Damage to the brain vessels, especially after an injury that was received from a sharp object;
- The conditions that accompany the increased fragility of the vascular wall;
- Uncontrolled use of drugs that act on blood clotting, which are most often prescribed after treatment of blood clots;
- Substances that are deposited in the vascular wall and lead to changes in vascular strength;
- Various tumors;
- Inflammatory and infectious process in the brain tissue.
Regardless of the cause that provoked the disease, a change in vascular permeability occurs in the brain, or rather, its increase. As a result, the vascular wall is torn and bleeding occurs in the brain. Very rarely, hemorrhage occurs, in which the flow of plasma and blood cells through the vascular wall, which has not been damaged. Thus, damage to the spinal cord or brain is formed.
Most often this condition affects the cerebral hemispheres, less often - the cerebellum or the brain stem.
Brain hemorrhage: symptoms
Symptoms of this disease depend on the massiveness, location and nature of hemorrhage. For example: intracerebral hemorrhage is accompanied by the following signs. When cerebral - headache, nausea, vomiting, etc .; with focal - body functions are lost, which are controlled by that part of the brain in which vascular damage occurred.
In subarachnoid hemorrhages, the following symptoms occur: cerebral, including coma, in severe cases, especially if the brainstem is damaged; shell, which are associated with reflex irritation of the membranes of the brain.
In this condition, treatment should be timely, because the slightest delay can provoke various negative consequences and even the death of the patient. The treatment itself must take into account the nature of the hemorrhage and the very cause of its occurrence. To therapy should apply an integrated approach.
In the first place it is necessary to provide support for the vital functions of the body, especially in the case of a lesion of the brain stem. The patient should be taken to the hospital as soon as possible. And already there, specialists will begin to maintain a normal level of blood pressure in the patient’s body, fight against cerebral edema and prevent its occurrence, as well as conduct blood-stopping therapy and strengthen the walls of blood vessels with drugs.
In almost all cases of cerebral hemorrhage, surgery is necessary. Moreover, this procedure should be carried out in the shortest possible time, preferably in the first 2 days after it occurred. But if the surgery was carried out later than this period, then a clearly expressed positive result may not be achieved, and even the opposite - only worsen the patient's condition.
Restoration of the body after receiving cerebral hemorrhage often lasts a very long time, especially in case of damage to the brainstem. If later there was also coma, then it would take much longer to rehabilitate the patient. Most often, massage, physiotherapy exercises and physiotherapeutic procedures such as magnetic therapy, electrical stimulation, etc., are used to recover from a stroke brain. But all these manipulations should be prescribed and monitored by the doctor, only then they will give a positive effect. If the patient's speech is impaired, and this is not a rare phenomenon, then the help of a speech therapist will not be superfluous.
The probability of death of the patient with cerebral hemorrhage is 2 times greater than with a simple stroke. After all, all this happens very quickly. The hemisphere that has been damaged is indicated by the patient’s dilated eye pupil. The consequences are directly dependent on the severity of the disease. If massive hematomas are formed, then the person may fall into a coma. Also, due to the squeezing of the brain stem, breathing and vision are impaired, and if the cerebellum is disturbed, nausea and vomiting are formed. One of the consequences of cerebral hemorrhage is - epilepsy.-
Why does cerebral haemorrhage occur in newborns?
Childbirth is an unpredictable process and it does not always proceed normally, often babies receive birth injuries. One of the most severe of them is cerebral hemorrhage, because it damages the central nervous system. This can happen due to:
- Discrepancies in the size of the birth canal and the baby’s head;
- Tearing or prematurity of the baby;
- Protracted or rapid delivery;
- The difficult course of pregnancy, the transmission of various infections and diseases;
- Invalid action by obstetricians.
There are several types of hemorrhage in the brain in newborns, they depend on where the blood vessels were broken.
- Epidural - between the bones of the skull and the hard shell of the brain, is formed when the bones of the cranial vault are damaged. The course of these hemorrhages differs in a quiet interval from 3 to 6 hours, then the syndrome of squeezing of the brain appears - from 6 to 12 hours. After the baby's condition worsens, and he falls into a coma after 2-3 days. The symptoms of this hemorrhage are: convulsions, asphyxiation, dilated pupil of the eye aside, which has been affected, slowing of the heart rhythm, pressure reduction.
- Subdural - between the soft and hard shells of the brain. Formed during prolonged or rapid delivery, as well as when the child is very large. As a result, his skull may be damaged, and the plates are offset. The consequences directly depend on the speed of diagnosis and the start of treatment.
- Subarachnoid - between the arachnoid and the substance of the brain. May occur during prolonged labor, due to obstetric intervention. Most often happens when the baby is premature. In this type of disease, inflammation of the lining of the brain occurs, which is caused by the decay products of the blood deposited on them.
Symptoms of this hemorrhage appear either immediately after childbirth, or several days later. These include: long stay of the baby with open eyes, agitated state, cry, convulsions, strabismus, unnatural reaction even to minor irritation, sleep disturbance, tense muscles of the neck, increased head circumference. At the same time, the consequences of this state are not too significant.
Hemorrhage in the ventricles and the substance of the brain. It develops in the majority of premature babies, since the vessels of their brain are not yet fully developed and too fragile.
In newborn babies, several types of intracranial hemorrhage can occur at the same time, but of the numerous number of symptoms, the indicator of one type of disease most often prevails, depending on how severely the brain has been damaged.
A child who has a brain hemorrhage should be given the safest living conditions - remove them from bright light, loud noises, dress him up as carefully as possible, carefully monitor body temperature, do not overcool or overheat. Most often, doctors recommend feeding such a baby with a probe, because even the sucking process for him is a big burden.
The consequences of this disease in newborns can have varying degrees of severity, it all depends on the state itself. May hemorrhage and completely pass without a trace, and may develop into chronic diseases and even cerebral palsy!
Brain hemorrhage is an extremely serious medical problem that encompasses several medical branches at once: neurosurgery, cardiology, neurology, etc. It is necessary to diagnose and treat this ailment as soon as possible. This will save the life of the victim and reduce the risk of negative consequences. The patient should immediately be taken to a hospital where qualified specialists will surely provide him with the necessary assistance!