If there are complaints, the patient must have a blood test. They are necessary to prevent serious diseases, the first symptoms of which can be detected solely by changes in the state of the blood. So, blood tests: transcript and normal performance.
Blood tests: transcript and normal values, tables
One of the main diagnostic tools for physicians is laboratory testing of blood samples. More recently, doctors diagnosed patients by examination and interview. Today, there is a wide range of examination options in the arsenal of physicians, and there are plenty to choose from, but the blood test still remains one of the most basic.
Studying the blood composition allows the doctor to see a detailed analysis of any markers of the disease, nutrients and toxins, as well as the degree of functionality of various organs, such as the kidneys or liver. A typical set of complete blood count studies is designed to measure hemoglobin, red and white blood cell counts. In general, it includes from 10 to 15 separate indicators of blood composition, which give doctors an understanding of your health.
In order to designate quantitative indices of blood elements in the results of analyzes, generally accepted abbreviations of the metric measurement system are used, which are listed in the table.
Another table contains laboratory data and normal ranges for blood sample studies. Consider in detail these data with decoding.
Red blood cells
These are red blood cells that are responsible for transporting oxygen to all tissues of the body. The concentration of erythrocytes in the blood of men on average is 5-6 million / μl, and for women - 4-5 million / μl. A low red blood cell level indicates that the patient has anemia. A condition characterized by high red blood cell levels is called polycythemia.
This is a red blood pigment. The composition of hemoglobin molecules include proteins, globins and dye - heme. Each red blood cell normally contains 280 million hemoglobin molecules. The average hemoglobin content in men is 10 mmol / l, in women it is 8.5 mmol / l. A condition with low hemoglobin is called anemia or anemia. Polycythemia is accompanied by elevated hemoglobin, which is often found in heavy smokers.
Determines the viscosity of the blood and shows the percentage of cells - blood cells in its total volume. The average value of this indicator for men is 45%, for women - 40%. With a high level of hematocrit, the blood becomes thicker, there is a risk of thrombosis.
Average red blood cell volume and red blood cell hemoglobin levels are used to determine the causes of anemia. In case of anemia, the blood contains little hemoglobin and a very low level of hematocrit or red blood cell concentration. These figures are the same regardless of gender.
Reticulocytes - young red blood cells
They are produced by the bone marrow, getting into the blood, and ripen in it for several days. A small indicator of reticulocytes can mean avitaminosis, iron deficiency, renal failure, and other diseases. The average value for men is 1.1%, for women - 1.3%.
They play an important role in the blood clotting process. In this case, it is the platelets that are responsible for the formation of blood clots in the vessels, but this happens only when their concentration increases. The lack of these cells in the blood can lead to hemophilia. Platelet counts in adults and children are different.
White blood cells
White blood cells that are responsible for protecting the body against infections. There are several types of leukocytes with different tasks in the immune defense. All of them constitute leukocyte blood count, the normal values of which are given in the table. Low white blood cell count indicates a weakened immune system.
It gives an idea of the shape and size of red blood cells. Its normal range is 11-15%. A decrease or increase in the index indicates liver problems, anemia, and a number of other diseases.
What is the difference between blood tests in children?
A standard blood test in children consists of incomplete analysis and comparison of results with the norm. In this regard, the study of such indicators plays an important role:
- concentrations of red blood cells;
- leukocyte formula;
- platelet concentrations;
- hemoglobin levels;
- reticulocyte counts;
- color index;
- sedimentation rate of red blood cells (ESR).
It should be borne in mind that children's norms of indicators usually do not correspond to adults. All data for acquaintance contain in the table.
Details on blood biochemistry
Often there is a need for a biochemical analysis of the composition of the blood, at which the levels of its chemical elements are studied. The main indicators of this analysis are:
- sugar levels - normal values for this indicator are in the range of 70-125 mg / dL;
- Calcium is in the range of 8.5 to 10.2 mg / dL;
- urea nitrogen (AMK) - the norm ranges from 10 to 25 mg / dL;
- creatinine AMK: in men - 38-174 IU / l, feminine norm - 90-140 IU / l.
According to the results of a biochemical study, a blood lipid profile is considered, by which cholesterol and triglyceride levels are measured. There are such cholesterol levels:
- healthy - below 200 mg / dL;
- the maximum allowable is from 200 to 239 mg / dL;
- high - more than 240 mg / dl.
The normal range for triglycerides is 40 to 160 mg / dL.
If something is not clear to you in the results of your analyzes, this is normal, and you can ask questions to the doctor. Although doctors and busy people, but you have the right to information. Be healthy!