Sneezing, runny nose and conjunctivitis resemble the common cold. But in fact it may be allergic rhinitis. It appears in the spring, the so-called seasonal rhinitis, or may last the whole year. In this case, the disease has specific signs. So, allergic rhinitis: symptoms and treatment in adults.
How to recognize the disease?
Allergic rhinitis is an inflammation of the upper respiratory tract that occurs when a person has a hypersensitivity to the presence of any allergen. There are two types of disease:
- Permanent rhinitis. It manifests itself throughout the year due to allergens found in the environment. These include dust mites, as well as animal dander, mold, etc.
- Seasonal allergies associated with the pollen of trees, grasses and shrubs. It manifests itself every year at the same time.
Spring pollen allergy occurs spontaneously and usually with fairly intense and characteristic manifestations of seasonal rhinitis, such as:
- frequent (in a row 10-15 times) sneezing;
- the nose begins to flow like a stream, with clear discharge;
- sore throat and itching in both nostrils at the same time;
- eyes begin to water;
- breathing difficult and hoarse, coughing occurs;
- Conjunctivitis occurs in half of pollen allergies.
In the most severe cases, allergies can result in an asthma attack. It is extremely rare that urticaria can also develop through direct contact with wet skin.
Persistent allergic rhinitis
In allergic rhinitis of the permanent type, the symptoms are the same, however, most often they appear to a lesser extent. This is a slightly stuffy nose throughout the year, but there is little snot. The intensity of symptoms depends on the allergen, its concentration in the air, as well as the degree of human sensitivity to it.
Rhinitis, caused by allergies to animal dander, often appears unexpectedly. As for dust mites, such allergic rhinitis can result in an asthma attack. Allergic seizures mostly occur in the morning. This is due to the fact that the particles of the allergen, being larger than pollen, take longer to get into the bronchi, and the time of crisis shifts.
Seasonal allergic rhinitis, as a rule, does not occur at the age of 3-4 years. For the first time it can be found in children from 6 to 12-15 years. However, there is no specific age for acquiring persistent allergic rhinitis. So, he can start in adulthood and even retired. Sometimes an allergy is simply a change of home environment.
As a rule, allergic rhinitis comes every year at about the same period - in early spring. But it depends on the type of pollen and weather conditions. We should not forget that there are also differences in the manifestation of the disease depending on the region. For example, in areas with mild climatic conditions, virulent allergy is caused by ambrosia, which blooms in late August and early September.
Do not confuse allergies with colds!
With allergic rhinitis, the nose is clogged, and the discharge comes out, with itching in the nasal passages. Conversely, a fully stuffed nose with discharge that goes to the throat, rather, indicates sinusitis. During cold, viscous discharge.
In children, it is often difficult to distinguish between colds and allergic rhinitis. The difference is that with a cold nose does not breathe, while with allergic rhinitis, it also itches. Do not neglect the symptoms of allergies, because the condition may worsen dramatically. Consult a specialist to find out how to treat allergic rhinitis.
The main methods of treatment
Oral antihistamines are first-line anti-allergic rhinitis drugs. Modern antihistamines of the second generation do not have a sedative effect and have a positive effect on nasal congestion. When taking such drugs is enough one dose once a day.
Nasal corticosteroids are recommended as a second-line treatment for allergic rhinitis. These drugs act on inflammation caused by allergies and are more powerful than antihistamines. Doctors prefer nasal corticosteroids in the treatment of patients with perennial allergic rhinitis who suffer from moderate or severe nasal congestion. They have few side effects, but can cause irritation or slight bleeding from the nose.
When antihistamines and nasal corticosteroids were ineffective or poorly tolerated, leukotriene antagonists are used to treat allergic rhinitis. These drugs reduce the inflammatory factors in the airways, triggered by antibodies.
Pregnant women are a special category for treatment, because during pregnancy the medication is contraindicated, especially in the first trimester. Before treating allergic rhinitis during pregnancy, consultation with a doctor is necessary. Acceptable methods are considered inhalation with normal saline or boiled potatoes.
How to treat allergic rhinitis in children? First you need to eliminate from the environment of the child possible allergens. Further therapy is carried out by a doctor according to the rules of allergy treatment with the use of antihistamines, antiallergic means of systemic action or local hormonal preparations.
Allergic rhinitis is a common disease that often begins in childhood and can persist in adulthood. Its diagnosis and treatment methods are relatively simple. After assessing the severity of the condition, the doctor prescribes a treatment course. All treatments are considered effective and generally safe.