Biochemical analysis of blood can tell a lot about our health. This diagnostic method allows to determine the concentration of enzymes necessary for the full functioning of all systems in the body. Doctors often say that alkaline phosphatase is elevated. The reasons for this we find out in today's article.
Literacy lessons: what is phosphatase?
For normal life and functioning of all vital systems in the human body need an adequate amount of phosphorus. Phosphatase is responsible for its production and transportation. This substance belongs to the group of enzymes. Due to phosphatase, the organic compounds entering the body are broken down and release phosphorus.
Until the end, the mechanism of action of this enzyme has not been studied, but researchers and practitioners claim that phosphatase is found in almost all internal organs. In high concentration, this enzyme is located on the walls of the following organs:
- the liver;
- bone tissue;
This enzyme is considered alkaline because the splitting of compounds and the release of phosphorus occurs most actively in a non-acidic medium. The optimal level of alkaline balance for the production of phosphatase varies from 8.6 to 10.1. Depending on the place of localization of phosphatase, its species also differ. This group of enzymes plays an important role in the construction of bone tissue, as well as in the removal of bile from the body.
In childhood, the maximum amount of phosphatase is produced by bone tissue, and when the fetus is born, it is produced by the placental layer. In the remaining periods in both sexes, the liver and kidneys take over this function.
We decipher the biochemical blood test
Before we consider the reasons why alkaline phosphatase can be increased, let's find out the rate of this enzyme group in the human body. Measured concentration of phosphatase in the conventional value - U / l. Its rate depends on age and gender.
In young children under the age of 1, the normal phosphatase concentration is 450-460 U / l. But at the age of 3 years, the concentration of this group of enzymes should not exceed 280 units. In the age group from 4 to 6 years, the phosphatase level reaches 270 units.
A normal indicator in the age of from 7 to 12 years is the concentration of phosphatase in the amount of 300 units per liter. In the future, normal rates for women and men differ. In the age category up to 17 years, 390 U / l is considered the norm for young men, and up to 187 for girls.
In adults, the concentration of phosphatase is slightly lower. Normally, women have alkaline phosphatase from 40 to 130 units, and among representatives of the strong half of humanity - from 35 to 105.
As already mentioned, the concentration of alkaline phosphatase changes during gestation. It is at this time that the placenta is responsible for the production of phosphorus. Normal during pregnancy is considered the concentration of phosphatase, ranging from 70 to 250 units.
Deviations from the norm: find out the cause
To diagnose almost any pathology, the doctor must prescribe a blood test. As a rule, the analysis for determining the concentration of alkaline phosphatase is carried out if the patient complains of general weakness, excessive fatigue, skin diseases, nausea, gag reflexes, pain syndromes.
It was after conducting a laboratory study of comparative blood samples that it was found that phosphatase was elevated. The reasons for the increase in the concentration of this group of enzymes can be very diverse, in particular:
- the course of necrotic or inflammatory processes in the liver;
- bile stasis with cholestasis;
- ulcerative colitis;
- infectious bowel disease;
- pathological processes developing in the bone tissue, in particular, cancer and the presence of metastases;
- insufficient concentration of phosphorus and calcium;
- cardiac muscle pathology, in particular, heart attack;
- renal failure of any form.
As medical practice shows, an increase in alkaline phosphatase does not always indicate the development of pathology. Often, for example, among representatives of the fair half of humanity, the level of phosphatase can be overestimated due to various physiological reasons:-
- during the climacteric pause;
- after violation of the integrity of the bone tissue during the regeneration period;
- after surgery;
- as a result of taking antibiotic drugs, as well as oral type contraceptives.
Many doctors believe that increased levels of phosphatase can be caused by obesity, smoking, and low-level lifestyle.
Increased phosphatase in the baby: what will the pediatrician say?
Often found in medical practice cases where alkaline phosphatase is elevated in a child. The reasons for the increase in its concentration can serve the following factors:
- bone tissue pathologies, in particular, the development of malignant processes, sarcomas, metastatic tumors;
- disease Hodgkin's disease;
- skeletal pathology;
- intestinal infection;
- myeloma pathology.
Increased phosphatase allows early to diagnose the development of rickets. However, not necessarily the reasons for the increase in its concentration associated with the occurrence of pathological processes. A blood test may show an excess of the norm during puberty and intensive bone development. Also in premature babies, as a rule, phosphatase is elevated.
Acceptance of a number of pharmacological preparations, in particular, antibiotics of the penicillin group, paracetamol, erythromycin, etc., can also lead to an increase in the level of phosphatase.
Monitor the level of phosphatase during pregnancy
I would like to pay special attention to the causes of increased alkaline phosphatase in pregnant women. As you know, after conception and attachment of the ovum in the female body, the placenta appears, which will protect the baby until birth. As already mentioned, the placental membrane is one of the organs that produce alkaline phosphatase.
The concentration of this enzyme changes throughout the entire period of gestation. In the first three months, the level of phosphatase sharply decreases, and already in the second trimester, its concentration is rapidly increasing by about 1/3 part. In the past three months, the level of alkaline phosphatase rises sharply and reaches double the norm. Throughout the pregnancy, you need to systematically visit the gynecologist and take blood tests. Deviation from the norm can have a negative impact on the health of the future crumbs.
If the level of alkaline phosphatase does not correspond to the norm in one or another period of gestation, the doctor may suspect the development of one of the following pathologies:
- Dabin-Johnson syndrome.
We normalize the level of phosphatase
So, we have already found out the main reasons why alkaline phosphatase can be increased. It remains only to determine which treatment to choose. It is not necessary to undertake any actions during the rehabilitation period after the violation of the integrity of the bone tissue, as well as during the carrying of the fetus.
As already mentioned, with the active growth of bone tissue, as well as the formation of the placenta, the level of phosphatase increases dramatically, and then by itself returns to normal. If during pregnancy you have noticed that the level of alkaline phosphatase is significantly elevated, then this may serve as a harbinger of a violation of placental cells and cause the development of complicated consequences.
Special treatment to restore the normal concentration of phosphatase does not exist. The doctor will determine the cause of its increase, and then prescribe a comprehensive treatment of the identified pathology. For the diagnosis of the disease need to pass additional tests. Based on them, the therapist himself will treat or prescribe a referral to a specialized doctor.
The human body is a very complex mechanism that cannot be understood without special medical knowledge. If an increase in the concentration of alkaline phosphatase is detected, contact a hospital. Perhaps the restoration of its normal level will be carried out with the help of pharmacological agents. Often an increase in phosphatase signals the development of a dangerous disease. Be healthy!