Doctors distinguish adenoiditis among the most dangerous childhood diseases: the disintegration of the lymphoid tissue that forms the basis of the pharyngeal tonsil. The principle of the disease is similar to that inherent in angina, but the problem itself gives more serious complications due to the location of the adenoids.
Basically, the disease occurs in young preschool children, but it can also manifest itself in adolescents, and even in adults, if the early causes have not been eliminated. Why is it important to notice and get rid of adenoiditis at an early stage? Is surgery always needed?
Why are adenoids inflamed, how are they dangerous?
For a start, it is worth noting that such a disease does not appear from scratch. Adenoiditis develops only if there is a predisposition to it, that is, initially the size of the pharyngeal tonsil is different from the normal one. It is noteworthy that this is typical mainly for children - in adults, the inflammatory process begins only when the immunity is completely “zeroed out”. More than 90% of cases of adenoiditis occur in children of preschool and primary school age, and the most frequent prerequisite for them is the classic acute respiratory viral infection (including simple contact with a person-carrier of infection) or severe hypothermia.
- In the presence of congenital pathology, the risk of adenoid dilution increases in those children whose diet does not have enough plant foods, that is, there is a deficiency of vitamins and microelements, as well as in residents of large megalopolises or ecologically unfavorable zones. All these factors significantly weaken the body's defenses, and even a randomly picked up virus is enough for a mild cold to act as a catalyst for serious diseases.
- The presence of chronic infections, especially those affecting the airways, is often a prerequisite for inflammation of the adenoids. However, the disease can develop against the background of suddenly occurring measles, scarlet fever, whooping cough and other infections.
- Separately, it should be noted contact with the allergen (when it is inhaled), as well as with tobacco smoke and tar: a child who is a passive smoker (if the family has someone with nicotine addiction) gets all the chances of adenoiditis.
It is difficult to say which of the diseases of the respiratory tract and oral cavity should cause a large proportion of anxiety, but complications in case of incorrect or absent treatment of the inflammatory process of the pharyngeal tonsil may not only bring discomfort to the child, but also become a chronic problem. It is noteworthy that it is impossible to say exactly which degree of the disease will turn out to be worse: it all depends on the genetic predisposition and the structure of the skull.
- First of all, permanent adenoiditis in the nose is the cause of endless infectious viral diseases, which are quite difficult. For a young child, this could be fatal if he caught, for example, the flu virus. But even if we discard such a picture of the development of events, leaving only permanent laryngitis and tracheitis, weakened immunity and permanent “hospital” will not allow either the baby or his parents to live in peace.
- Disturbances of the middle ear, among which are not only inflammatory processes leading to purulent and catarrhal otitis, but also to hearing impairment. Moreover, everything begins with the fact that there is a congestion, as in an airplane at the time of gaining or reducing height, but gradually the entrance to the Eustachian tube is closed so that the eardrum does not move, and this provokes a significant hearing loss.
- The general deterioration of working capacity associated with the loss of oxygen that enters the brain through nasal breathing: affects not only the child's academic performance, but also his memory, attentiveness, mobility. The baby becomes sluggish and distracted, gets tired more quickly, may complain of headaches due to hypoxia.
Thus, it is extremely important that parents notice the development of the inflammatory process at an early stage and immediately think about treatment. Or, if you know that the baby has a congenital pathology of the pharyngeal tonsil (in the case of its existence, the parents have a high probability of genetic transmission). Take care of basic prevention: strengthen the immune system, try to limit contact with allergens and household chemicals, do not overfeed with carbohydrate foods, try to ensure that the child has constant physical exertion.
The main symptoms of adenoiditis in children
Unlike angina, inflammation of the tonsil, it is not so easy to notice the disintegration of the adenoids at the initial stage. In the usual examination of the posterior throat, the lymphoid tissue is not yet visible, and the examination of the otolaryngologist should be extensive, using a special mirror, which is introduced to the very root of the tongue to see what is below this level. However, the problem with adenoids can be suggested by the characteristic external manifestations.
- If a child suffers from a violation of nasal breathing and complains of poor hearing (or you find that he does not immediately respond to voice and sounds), it is likely that the case is in the amygdala, which blocks natural airways.
- Problems with breathing are expressed not only in the fact that the baby is not able to take a full breath with the nose and has to open his mouth, and also snores in his sleep, but also in edema of the mucous membranes, congestion in the nasal passages, frequent rhinitis and sinusitis, nasal voices. Accordingly, problems with hearing can lead to otitis.
Most of the symptoms depend on the severity of the disease, although there are exceptions. At stage I, breathing problems are observed only in sleep (in a horizontal position), at night II there is snoring and difficulty breathing during the day, and at stage III hearing impairment is added, immunity falls, the child acquires an "adenoid face" with active rhinitis, nasal edema and edema moves.
What should be the treatment?
Despite the progress in the field of medicine, there are still doctors who, when diagnosed with "inflammation of the adenoids", immediately categorically state - only surgery. The fact that a small child is unlikely to be pleased with a surgical knife, and the consequences for him can be quite heavy, few people think. In fact, the treatment of adenoiditis in children can be carried out even without the use of medications, but it all depends on the extent of the disease.
- Removal of adenoids can be recommended only with extensive tissue proliferation - this is the II-III degree, which is accompanied by serious problems that cause discomfort to the baby: a significant hearing loss, poor speech, difficulty in swallowing and the inability to take a clean full breath. It is also possible the decline of the body's defenses, as a result of which the child often and very ill, even with a mild cold, experiencing the whole set of complications.
However, in most cases, all this is the result of missing or incorrect treatment, and therefore, with the right approach at the initial stage, the operating table can be avoided. According to Dr. Komarovsky, adenoiditis in children is treated primarily with the observance of the preventive measures described earlier, and classical measures to get rid of respiratory diseases are added directly to them.
- Due to the fact that tissue splitting is a consequence, and not a primitive, it is necessary to direct all forces to the main disease. To get rid of the infection, if it has become a prerequisite for the inflammatory process, it is necessary to remove mucus from the nasal passages, performing washing, and gargling, as with sore throat - that is, often with alternating acid and alkaline solutions.
- Drugs for the treatment of adenoiditis should be immunostimulating, antimicrobial and inflammatory. The exact list can only be given to you by your doctor, who understands what needs to be eliminated.
Summarizing the above, it is worth emphasizing once again that even a child with a genetic predisposition may never know what adenoiditis is if parents take care of strengthening their immunity, as well as the conditions in which it grows. But if it happens that you see the first bells of incipient inflammation, immediately start the classic antiviral therapy.