To talk about the goals of education, we must answer the question: how do they appear?
It can be said that many objective reasons are reflected in the formation of goals (both mental development, and achievements of philosophy and pedagogy, and the level of social culture). But at the same time, the main factor determining education is the policy, ideology of the state.
It should be understood that educational goals cannot be formulated once and for all - they change from a specifically - historical nature.
If we go through historical epochs, we will see that primitive upbringing should have ensured the existence of man. This means that the main goal was set labor skills: hunting, fishing, clothing manufacturing, protection.
The slave-owning and feudal system (the era of the ancient world and the Middle Ages) the presence of different social classes demanded different educational goals.
On the one hand, the education of gentlemen, the introduction to art, science, the ability to acquire wealth, to protect their possessions.
On the other hand, complete submission, humility.
In this era, more and more educated people come to the conclusion that education should be equal, that all children should equally develop their abilities. Another Italian philosopher Campanella Tommaso, who lived at the turn of the XVI - XVII centuries, believed that compulsory education for all should be combined with physical, moral, aesthetic, labor and professional education.
The goals of modern parenting
The epoch of the new time introduced few changes in the goal of education. Class is preserved. But it was then that the experience of educating the younger generation began to be comprehended and summarized.
You ask: what about the classics of pedagogy that determined the goals of education?
The most famous people in pedagogy also formulated goals in different ways.
Czech teacher Jan Amos Komensky(XVII century) considered the main purpose of education development of the mind, morality and will. According to him, children must first be taught to piety, then to good manners, and, finally, to useful sciences.-
English philosopher and educator LockeHe considered the main goal of upbringing to be the creation of a person, an active and proactive person with a sharp mind and practical knowledge.
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi-the largest Swiss teacher - pinned his hopes on a properly organized upbringing with compulsory preparation for work and participation in it.His goal is nurturingin the development of abilities and talents laid down in man by nature, in their constant improvement.
Each of the teachers considered the process of upbringing in their own way, but they all aspired to the one-purpose upbringing of a developed person, which, moreover, corresponds to a particular society.
Of course, we cannot but talk about Russian scientists and theorists, who in their time pay great attention to the issues of education.
V. G. Belinsky saw the goal of education in the formation of a fighter for freedom and equality.
A.I. Herzen - in the preparation of a free person, fighting against public evil.
NG Chernyshevsky - in the preparation of a public person, direct and honest, ideological.
Konstantin Dmitrievich Ushinsky - in moral development, in preparation for the free creative work.
What conclusion can be made today?
The highest goal of upbringing is a person perfect in all respects, a kind of ideal to which all upbringing should strive. The goal of society is to ensure the all-round development of every person, regardless of his nationality, religion or class.
The purpose of modern education - "A person capable of building a life worthy of a Man".
Especially for LedySpecial - Natalia