In the article Needlework: knitting, embroidery, beading, weaved the history of the most popular types of needlework today. But this topic is so extensive that in one short article it is simply impossible to tell about the whole diversity of applied art.In this article we will talk about the unusual types of needlework associated with the use of paper.
One of the most famous handicrafts - the art of origami, appeared almost simultaneously with the invention of paper. Inventive Japanese immediately found the use of such a flexible and ductile material. A long time ago, this kind of needlework was exclusively temple art. Figures, folded from paper used in temple rituals. The paper for the servant of the temple was sacred, it was given a magical meaning. Therefore, it was forbidden to cut or make cuts. Everything had to be folded from a single sheet of paper.
A little later, they began to teach this art in aristocratic families. By the way, glue the walls with paper and write hieroglyphs on them, also invented in the temples of Japan. We can say that this is how wallpaper appeared. The next country where origami has become widespread is China. In temple rituals, origami figures were also used. Until the 18th century, the art of origami remained entirely temple-like. And only after the secret of paper production became available to a wider circle of the population - it became practically popular. In Asian countries, origami figurines were made for wedding ceremonies, served as table decorations for the celebrations. Japanese samurai wrote secret messages and folded them in a special way origami. Expand it without spoiling, could only specially trained people. And in the sixteenth century, in the countries of the East, it became prestigious to invite origami teachers to teach children.
In Europe, this kind of needlework came in the nineteenth century. Paper began to be produced at local enterprises and origami is gaining particular popularity among aristocrats. At that time, family crests and, of course, souvenirs were made in this way. But the birthplace of origami and dictator of fashion in this area remains Japan. There is an "origami alphabet" i.e. book basics of paper craftsmanship. Europe developed its own creative direction of origami. Created their technology and had their secrets.
In Russia, the first enthusiastic origami, appeared in the family of Tsar Nicholas P. Mentor Tsarevich (heir to the throne) was invited from Cambridge. He taught the children of the royal family to this art. Naturally, among the children of the nobles, it became fashionable and prestigious to be able to fold paper figurines. And for a very long time, this kind of creativity was considered especially childish.
Magicians of those times used origami in their speeches. Figures of animals and flowers were folded in front of an admiring public, and then they were disassembled on a piece of paper.
But origami loved by adults. Many famous writers, musicians, scientists of the time seriously fond of this needlework. We have, great popularity, creativity origami has reached in the last century. I think many have heard about the story of a little Japanese girl, she made paper cranes. And she believed that by making a certain amount, she would be saved and not die from radiation sickness. These cranes were sent to her by children from all over the world ...
Now, every country has its own origami schools and clubs. And this kind of paperwork has become truly popular.-
Paper twist - Quilling
As we already know, with the invention of paper, a variety of different handicrafts arose in which this unique material was used. After disclosing the recipe of manufacturing, paper began to be produced in Europe and the Europeans did not remain in debt to the Japanese masters, invented their art of working with paper. And it is called "quilling" (from the English word "quill" or "bird feather"). This happened approximately at the beginning of the 15th century. In the monasteries, the nuns made very cute decorations from paper with gilded edges, twisting paper strips in a special way.
As a result, the products resembled works from gold bands. These masterpieces have not reached our time, but the paper-twisting technique has become widespread. Paper was an expensive product, and quilling was available only to ladies from rich families. At the beginning of the development, this technique was considered art, and in the 19th century it was considered to be female needlework. During the 20th century, this kind of needlework was almost forgotten. But true art has always survived and returned. In our time - the fascination with quilling and work in this technique is again considered art. Masters create their products, these masterpieces. And quilling again took a strong position among the popular needlework.
From the history of parchment
We all know that before the appearance of paper, humanity used different materials for writing. One of these carriers was papyrus. For its production used dried leaves of a special plant. In the Turkish city of Begam, another material was invented - parchment. For parchment used the skins of pigs and antelopes, which were subjected to special treatment. In the fifteenth century, real parchment was replaced with parchment paper. At this time, the first printing presses appeared. The demand for parchment has increased dramatically. I needed a cheaper and faster way to make parchment. Of course, they found him. So parchment paper appeared.
Parchment used to write religious texts and drawings. But with the advent of the printing press and the invention of parchment paper, the art of drawing on this material has become more accessible.
In the 19th century it was fashionable to decorate texts made on parchment paper with a special pattern. So the first patterns appeared, made (embossed) on parchment paper with special tools. This stunning beauty of its kind of needlework was known in Africa, America and many other countries of the world. We owe this development to Martha Ospina. At the age of 14 she met this technique in a Colombian school and fell in love with her for life. After marriage, she moved to Holland and continued to develop and teach this kind of creativity. The problem was only one. Tools for working with parchment paper, as well as many materials were almost inaccessible. That's when the Venema couple decided to start their production of everything that is needed for the parchment technique. Their products are well known in foreign countries, and more recently in Russia.
On the history of the emergence and development of modern trends in scrapbooking, we will talk in the following articles on the pages of our heading Crafts and toys in the section with their own hands.
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